Class Session 12b
Chapter 8
•
Indicating Reasons with the Particle de
•
Making a Partial List with the Particle ya
•
Expressing a Past Experience with the Verb aru
•
Verbs in the Plain Past Form
•
Describing People/Things More Specifically
•
Describing People’s Appearances
Japanese 1100-L12b-07-16-2012
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Indicating Reasons with the Particle de
• The particle de can express reasons and causes, showing how the given action takes
place or how the given state holds
• Examples:
yuki de basu ga kimasen deshita.
The bus did not come because of snow.
kono resutoran wa oishii pan de yuumei desu.
This restaurant is famous for delicious bread.
ani wa shukudai de isogashii desu.
My brother is (kept) busy with homework.
Japanese 1100-L12b-07-16-2012
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Making a Partial List with the Particle ya
• Unlike the particle to, which plainly lists items, the particle ya lists some items while
implying that there are others which are not listed
• Examples:
kinō wa biiru ya wain o nomimashita.
I drank, beer, wine, and other drinks yesterday.
furansu ya, supein ya, itaria ni ikimashita.
I went to France, Spain, Italy, etc.
nihon-go ya, chūgoku-go o benkyō shimashita.
I studied Japanese, Chinese, etc.
• Both to and ya are used only for nouns
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Expressing a Past Experience with the Verb aru
• To tell someone what experience you have had, use the verb aru (to exist, to have) in the
present tense with a nominal phrase using a verb in the plain past tense + the abstract
noun koto (i.e., noun + particle + plain past verb form + koto + ga arimasu )
• Koto nominalizes the verb so it can be placed where a noun would normally be used
• Examples:
unagi o tabeta koto ga arimasu.
I have had (eaten) eel before.
nihon e itta koto ga arimasu.
I have been (gone) to Japan before.
kabuki o mita koto ga arimasu.
I have seen Kabuki (classical Japanese thearter) before.
• If you use a verb in the plain present tense before koto ga arimasu, it changes the meaning
to something that you sometimes do:
shigoto de honkon ni iku koto ga arimasu.
I have occasion to go to Hong Kong on business.
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Verbs in the Plain Past Form
• Forming a verb in the plain past affirmative form for ru-verbs is rather straightforward; it is a bit more complicated for u-verbs
• The textbook shows the rules in a single table; we will discuss the ru-verbs and uverbs separately
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Verbs in the Plain Past Form (ru-verb)
• For an ru-verb (most verbs end ing in –eru or –iru) drop the –ru to get the stem, then
add the suffix –ta:
• Examples:
Plain Present
(dictionary)
Form
Meaning
Stem
Plain Past
taberu
(to eat)
tabe
tabeta
miru
(to see)
mi
mita
shimeru
(to close)
shime
shimeta
akeru
(to open)
ake
aketa
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Verbs in the Plain Past Form (u-verb)
• For a u-verb (most verbs ending in anything except iru or eru) drop the –u to get
the stem, then add a suffix according to the following model verbs:
Verb ending in:
Model
Meaning
Suffix
Plain Past
-ru
toru
(to take)
tta
totta
-tsu
motsu
(to have)
tta
motta
-u
au
(to meet)
tta
atta
-mu
yomu
(to read)
nda
yonda
-nu
shinu1
(to die)
nda
shinda
-bu
yobu
(to call)
nda
yonda
-ku
tsuku
(to arrive)
ita
tsuita
-gu
yogu
(to swim)
ida
oyoida
-su
osu
(to push) (su → shi) ta
shita
-------------------------------------1
shinu is the only verb in Japanese that ends in nu
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Verbs in the Plain Past Form (Irregular Verbs)
• In addition to the two irregular verbs we already know (suru (to do) and kuru (to come),
iku (to go) is slightly irregular in the plain past form:
suru
shita
kuru
kita
iku
itta (rather than iita)
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Describing People and Things More Specifically
• In Chapter 4 we learned to describe people and things using adjectives:
yoko-san wa kirei desu.
Yoko is pretty.
• You can describe people and things more specifically by adding a noun and the
particle ga before the adjective to indicate the part or aspect to which the property
applies:
X wa Y ga Z desu.
X is Z in terms of Y.
• Examples:
yoko-san wa kami ga kirei desu.
(a statement about Yoko)
Yoko has pretty hair
yoko-san no kami wa kirei desu.
(a statement about Yoko’s hair)
Yoko’s hair is pretty
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Describing People’s Appearances
• Some useful phrases for describing the appearance of people:
se ga takai
se ga hikui
kami ga nagai
kami ga mijikai
me ga ookii
tall
short
have long hair
have short hair
have big eyes
me ga kirei na
kuchi ga chisai
yasete iru
futotte iru
have pretty eyes
have a small mouth
skinny
fat
• Examples:
ani wa se ga takai desu.
My older brother is tall.
boku no garufurendo wa me ga kirei desu.
My girlfriend has pretty eyes.
ane wa kami ga nagai desu.
My sister has long hair.
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Class Session 12b Lecture (7/16/12)