Niredi ukufunda isiXhosa?
You-ready to-learn Xhosa?
Ewe! Yes!
Siredi!
We-ready!
Evidence of Changing Xhosa (sign in
Butterworth – eGcuwa)
Grammar interlude – Pronouns
(Subject Concords)
I
We
NdiSi-
You (singular)
You (plural)
UNi-
He/She
They
U- (high tone)
Ba-
-redi bl/rel < Eng: -lungile READY
p.110 Greater Dictionary of Xhosa
Vol.3 (Fort Hare Lexicography Unit)
Zama - #1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
I am ready. ____________________
Are you ready? _________________
They are ready. _________________
Are they ready? _________________
She is ready. ____________________
Are we ready? ___________________
Zama - #1 answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
I am ready. Ndiredi.
Are you ready? Uredi?
They are ready. Baredi.
Are they ready? Baredi?
She is ready. Uredi.
Are we ready? Siredi?
-rayithi bj/cop bl/rel < Eng: -chanekile
RIGHT [also alright, OK, fine]
p.109 Greater Dictionary of Xhosa
Vol.3 (Fort Hare Lexicography Unit)
Zama - #2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Are you alright? ____________________
They are right.______________________
Are we OK? _________________________
Are you (plural) OK? _________________
I am alright. ________________________
Are they OK? ______________________
Zama - #2 -answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Are you alright?
They are right.
Are we OK?
Are you (plural) OK?
I am alright.
Are they OK?
Urayithi?
Barayithi.
Sirayithi?
Nirayithi?
Ndirayithi.
Barayithi?
Pronunciation
• C – suck spinach from behind top front teeth
• Cima iradiyo! Switch off the radio!
• Cima iTV! Switch off the TV!
Ch (aspirated – puff of air)
• Uredi ukuchama? Are you ready to pee?
• Ndiredi ukuchama. I am ready to pee.
The X click
• Tongue touching side teeth – suck over it
• Like getting a horse to move on
• Ndiyaxolisa. I am sorry.
• Siyaxolisa. We are sorry.
Xh (aspirated – puff of air)
• Ndiredi ukuthetha isiXhosa. I am ready to speak
Xhosa.
• Siredi ukuxhela. We are ready to slaughter.
The Q click
• Tongue pulled off roof of mouth (hard palate)
• Like the sound of a champagne cork
• Ndiyaqonda. I understand.
• Niyaqonda? Do you (plural) understand?
Qh (aspirated – puff of air)
• Urayithi ukuqhuba? Are you OK to drive?
• Barayithi ukuqhuba. They are OK to drive.
The Rh consonant
• As for Afrikaans “Gaan”
• Ugqirha uthi ndirayithi. The doctor says I am
OK.
The Hl consonant
• As for Welsh “Ll”
(Notice to all residents.)
• Hlala phantsi. Sit down.
Pronounce
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Qhuba! Drive! Carry on!
Cinga! Think!
Xela! Tell!
Xhela! Slaughter!
Rholihlala Mandela
Xolani Quwa
Some useful Xhosa adjectives
(apart from –redi and –rayithi)
•
•
•
•
-seriyas
-rongo
-swit
-fresh
serious
wrong
sweet
fresh
Some more useful Xhosa adjectives
• -lula
easy
• -nzima
difficult
• -mnandi
nice
• -shushu
hot
Some more useful pronouns
• iEg. Ipassword irayithi.
it (any THING)
The password (it) is
right.
• ziEg. Iinamba zirongo.
they (any THINGS)
The numbers (they)
are wrong.
An extremely useful pronoun – KU• Ku-
Indefinite IT (eg. It is nice, It is
hot, It is easy, It is difficult)
Yhu! Kushushu! Wow! It is hot!
Yhu! Kumnandi! Wow! It is nice!
Yhu! Kunzima! Wow! It is difficult!
Yhu! Kuseriyas! Wow! It is serious!
Zama - #3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
We are serious.
It is easy. (indefinite “it”)
They are sweet. (people)
They are sweet. (things)
You (plural) are fresh.
You (singular) are serious.
I am serious.
Zama - #3 - answers
1. We are serious.
2. It is easy.
3. They are sweet. (people)
4. They are sweet. (things)
5. You (plural) are fresh.
6. You (singular) are serious.
7. I am serious.
Siseriyas.
Kulula.
Baswit.
Ziswit.
Nifresh.
Useriyas.
Ndiseriyas.
Zama #4 – Buza! Ask!
1. Are you serious?
2. Is it hot? (both indefinite and referring to a
thing)
3. Is it difficult? (indefinite)
4. Is the braai ready?
5. Is the password wrong?
6. Is the number right?
7. Is she sweet?
Zama #4 – Answers
1. Are you serious? Useriyas?
2. Is it hot? (both indefinite and referring to a
thing) Kushushu? Ishushu?
3. Is it difficult? (indefinite) Kunzima?
4. Is (it) the braai ready? Ibraai iredi?
5. Is (it) the password wrong? Ipassword
irongo?
6. Is (it) the number right? Inamba irayithi?
7. Is she sweet? Uswit?
Making a negative
• Ndi-  Andi-+kho + adjective
• Eg. Ndiredi. I am ready.  Andikho redi. I am
not ready.
• Si-  Asikho
Asikho seriyas. We are not serious.
• Ni-  Anikho
Anikho redi? Are you (plural) not ready?
• Ba-  Abakho
Abakho rayithi. They are not OK.
• Ku-  Akukho
Akukho lula. It is not easy.
Zama #5 – Change into negative
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Kumnandi. It is nice. ________________
Bafresh. They are fresh. ______________
Ndirayithi. I am OK. __________________
Siredi. We are ready. _________________
Kunzima. It is difficult. ________________
Ziswit. They are sweet. ________________
Nirongo. You are wrong. _______________
Zama #5 – Change into negative answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Kumnandi. It is nice. Akukho mnandi. It is not nice.
Bafresh. They are fresh. Abakho fresh. They are not fresh.
Ndirayithi. I am OK. Andikho rayithi. I am not OK.
Siredi. We are ready. Asikho redi. We are not ready.
Kunzima. It is difficult. Akukho nzima. It is not difficult.
Ziswit. They are sweet. Azikho swit. They are not sweet.
Nirongo. You are wrong. Anikho rongo. You are not wrong.
Making a negative with vowels
• U- (you)  Awu-+kho + adjective
• Eg. Urayithi. You are right.  Awukho rayithi.
You are not right.
• U- (s/he) AKAkho
Akakho seriyas. He is not
serious.
• I-  AYIkho
Ayikho redi? Is it not ready?
Zama #6 – Change into negative
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Iti imnandi. The tea is nice. ___________________
UJim urayithi. Jim is right. __________________
Wena uredi. You, you are ready. ________________
I-English inzima. English is difficult. _____________
Uswit. She is sweet. ________________________
Inamba irongo. The number is wrong. ____________
Zama #6 – Change into negative answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
Iti imnandi. The tea is nice. Iti ayikho mnandi.
UJim urayithi. Jim is right. UJim akakho rayithi.
Wena uredi. You, you are ready. Wena awukho redi.
I-English inzima. English is difficult. I-English ayikho
nzima.
5. Uswit. She is sweet. Akakho swit.
6. Inamba irongo. The number is wrong. Inamba ayikho
rongo. The number is not wrong.
Injani iti? How is the tea?
Imnandi!
Unjani uJim? How is Jim?
Shem, akakho rayithi. Shame, he is not OK.
Future tense with adjectives
Pronoun –ZOBA + adjective
• Ndirayithi. I am OK.  Ndizoba rayithi. I will
be OK.
• Kushushu. It is hot. Kuzoba sushu. It will be
hot.
• Kunzima. It is difficult.  Kuzoba nzima. It will
be difficult.
Zama #7 – Change into future
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Iti imnandi. ___________________
UJim urayithi. __________________
Wena uredi?__________________
Siseriyas. _____________________
Bafresh. ______________________
Zama #7 – answers - iimpendulo
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Iti imnandi.  Iti izoba mnandi.
UJim urayithi.  UJim uzoba rayithi.
Wena uredi? Wena uzoba redi?
Siseriyas.  Sizoba seriyas.
Bafresh.  Bazoba fresh.
Past tense with adjectives
Prefix be- + adjective
• Ndirayithi. I am OK.  Bendirayithi. I was OK.
• Kushushu. It is hot.  Bekusushu. It was hot.
• Kunzima. It is difficult.  Bekunzima. It was
difficult.
Zama #8 – Change into past
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Kumnandi. ___________________
Sirayithi._____________________
Niseriyas._____________________
Kulula. ________________________
Ndiredi. ________________________
Zama #8 – Change into past –
answers - iimpendulo
•
•
•
•
•
Kumnandi.  Bekumnandi.
Sirayithi. Besirayithi.
Niseriyas. Beniseriyas.
Kulula.  Bekulula.
Ndiredi.  Bendiredi.
Xhosa verbs – without pronouns
are commands!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Thatha!  Take!
Hamba! Go!
Vula! Open!
Bamba!  Hold/Catch/Touch!
Shopisha!  Shop!
Treyina!  Train!
Fowuna!  Phone!
Verbs with pronouns make
sentences
• Ndithatha iCD. I am taking a CD.
• Ubamba ibhola. She is catching the ball.
• Bavula ishop. They are opening the shop.
Future and Past
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Ndizothatha. I will take.
Bendithatha. I was taking.
Sizohamba. We will go.
Besihamba. We were going.
Nizovula. You will open.
Benivula. You were opening.
Ndizotreyina. I will train.
Benditreyina. I was training.
Xhosa nouns - THINGS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ishop
ividiyo
iCD
ipinabatha
isirinji
ifowuni
ibhedi
inantsika (thingy)
Xhosa nouns - PEOPLE
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
umama
utata
usisi
ubhuti
uNaledi
uAnn
unantsika (Thingy-me-bob)
Zama #9 – Translate
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Take the CD!
I was opening the shop.
Take the peanut butter!
We will take the peanut butter.
Will you take the phone?
Take the phone!
Zama #9 – Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Thatha iCD!
Bendivula ishop.
Thatha ipinabatha!
Sizothatha ipinabatha.
Uzothatha ifowuni?
Thatha ifowuni!
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