Business
Communication
Chapter 4
Basics of English Grammar
Copyright 2010 South-Western Cengage Learning
TN State Objectives:
 8) Evaluate, create, and revise business
correspondence, short contracts and reports,
electronic forms, and small legal documents for a
business in standard English using the following:
 b). Using proper grammar essentials, including parts
of speech, vocabulary, punctuation, sentence
structure.
2
Parts of Speech
 Noun – names a person, place or thing.
 ex:
 Pronoun – takes the place of a noun.
 ex:
 Adjective – describes a noun or pronoun.
 ex:
 Verb – a word or phrase that describes the action,
state of being, or condition of a person, place or
thing.
 ex:
4.1 Parts of Speech and Sentences
3
Parts of Speech
 Adverb – describes a verb, adjective, or another
adverb.
 ex:
 Preposition – connects a noun or pronoun to other
words to form a phrase.
 ex:
 Conjunction – joins words or phrases, or clauses.
 ex:
 Interjection – expresses surprise or strong feeling.
 ex:
4.1 Parts of Speech and Sentences
4
Parts of Speech Activity
“Using well-structured sentences will help you
communicate clearly”
5
Sentence Parts
 Subject
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 is the person who is speaking, the person who is spoken to, or the person,
place or thing about whom is spoken.
 A simple subject is the main word in the complete subject that identifies
specifically who or what the sentence concerns.
 The simple subject of a sentence is never in a prepositional phrase.
 A complete subject includes the simple subject plus all the sentence that is
not part of the complete subject
 Examples:


John writes articles for a newspaper.
John, the young journalist, has written articles for a newspaper.
 A compound subject is two or more simple subjects joined by
conjunctions.

Ex: John and Hallie work for our company.
4.1 Parts of Speech and Sentences
6
Sentence Parts
 Predicate
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 The complete predicate is everything in the sentence said by, to, or about the




subject.
It includes the main verb of the sentence.
Whatever is not included in the complete subject of a sentence belongs in
the complete predicate.
The simple predicate is the verb in the complete predicate.
Examples:


John writes articles for the newspaper.
John, the young journalist, has written articles for the newspaper.
 A compound predicate consists of two or more verbs with the same subject.
 Ex: John and Hallie discussed the matter and concluded that we are handling this
situation incorrectly.
4.1 Parts of Speech and Sentences
7
Creating Sentences Activity
“Using well-structured sentences will help you
communicate clearly”
8
QUIZ
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Sentence Parts
 Objects and subject
complements
 Direct objects
 Indirect objects
 Subject complements
© Image Source / Getty Images
Using well-structured sentences will help
you communicate clearly.
4.1 Parts of Speech and Sentences
10
Clauses, Phrases, and Fragments
 Clause: a group of words with a subject and a
predicate
 Phrase: a group of related words with no subject or
predicate
 Fragment: an incomplete sentence that may or may
not have meaning
4.1 Parts of Speech and Sentences
11
Sentence Structure
 Simple sentences
Example: Theodore sings and acts.
 Compound sentences
Example: Erin loves to ride horses; Manuel loves to
draw horses.
 Complex sentences
Example: Although it is important to proofread a
written message, many people feel they do not have
the time.
4.1 Parts of Speech and Sentences
12
Nouns
 Noun: a word used to name people, places, or things
 Common nouns
 Proper nouns
 Singular and plural nouns
 Collective nouns
 Possessive nouns
4.2 Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives
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Pronouns
 Pronoun: a word used in the place of a noun
 Personal pronouns
 Nominative case
 Objective case
 Possessive case
 Intensive and reflective pronouns
 Interrogative and demonstrative pronouns
4.2 Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives
14
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
 Pronoun antecedent: a noun or phrase that is
replaced by a pronoun
 Pronouns and antecedents should agree in:
 Person
 Number
 Gender
 Compound antecedents
 Indefinite pronoun agreement
4.2 Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives
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Adjectives
 Adjective: a word that describes or limits nouns and
pronouns
 Articles
 Nouns and pronouns used as adjectives
 Compound adjectives
4.2 Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives
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Adjectives
 Comparison of adjectives
 Positive degree
 Comparative degree
 Superlative degree
 Absolute adjectives
4.2 Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives
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Verbs
 Verb: a word that expresses action, a state of being,
or a condition
 Types of verbs
 Action verbs
 Linking verbs
 State of being verbs
4.3 Verbs and Adverbs
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Verbs Tenses
 Simple tenses
 Present
 Past
 Future
 Perfect tenses
 Present perfect
 Past perfect
 Future perfect
4.3 Verbs and Adverbs
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Verbs
 Transitive verbs
 Intransitive verbs
 Voice
 Active voice
 Passive voice
4.3 Verbs and Adverbs
20
Subject and Verb Agreement
 Number
 Intervening phrases
 “A number,” “the number”
 Names of companies
 Amounts
 Compound subjects
4.3 Verbs and Adverbs
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Adverbs
 Adverb: a word that modifies an action verb, an
adjective, or another adverb
 Conjunctive adverbs
 Comparison of adverbs
 Positive degree
 Comparative degree
 Superlative degree
4.3 Verbs and Adverbs
22
Prepositions
 Preposition: a word that connects a noun or
pronoun to other words to form a phrase
 Prepositions introduce phrases
 Prepositional phrases may modify:
 Nouns (acting as adjectives)
 Action verbs
 Adjectives
 Adverbs
4.4 Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections
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Conjunctions
 Conjunction: a word or phrase that joins two or
more words, phrases, or clauses
 Coordinate conjunctions
 Correlative conjunctions
 Subordinate conjunctions
 Parallel construction
4.4 Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections
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Interjections
 Interjection: a word or phrase used primarily to
express strong emotion
 Have no grammatical relationship with other words
in the sentence
4.4 Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections
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Vocabulary
active voice
adjective
adverb
clause
collective noun
conjunction
direct object
fragment
indirect object
interjection
noun
passive voice
phrase
possessive noun
predicate
preposition
pronoun
pronoun antecedent
sentence
subject
verb
verb tense
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Business Communication - Tipton County Schools, TN