Causes & Effects of
the Civil War
Economic Differences
• South
– “cotton kingdom”
– Plantation system
• Slave labor
– Agricultural
– Anti-Clay’s “American
System”
• National Banking
• Internal improvements
• tariffs
• North
– Manufacturing & factory
system
– Used of immigrants for
labor in new factories
– Pro-Clay’s “American
System”
Political Causes
• States’ Rights
• Wilmot Proviso (no slavery in Mexican territory)
• Compromise of 1850
– CA added as free state & other territory popular sovereignty & fugitive
slave laws
• Kansas-Nebraska Act
– Popular vote in territory on slave issue
– “Bleeding Kansas”
– Caning of Senator Sumner
• Dred Scott v. Sanford
• Republican Party & Election of 1860
• Fort Sumter
Social Causes
• Second Great Awakening
• Abolition Movement:
– Frederick Douglass & Up from Slavery
– William Lloyd Garrison & The Liberator
– Sojourner Truth
• Rebellions:
– Nat Turner: slave rebellion
– John Brown’s Raid
• Women’s Rights Movement
– Seneca Falls Conference (Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton)
– Declaration of Sentiment of Rights
The War Starts…
• February 4, 1861—Confederate States of America was born
• Fort Sumter was one of few Union footholds in the South
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–
–
–
Lincoln’s dilemma:
order attack on the fort
evacuate the fort
“food for hungry men”
• Jefferson Davis’ dilemma:
– do nothing
– order attack on the fort**
• Confederates attacked and the fort fell out of the Union control
•
RESULT: United the North; Virginia and other upper Southern
states seceded
*1863: West Virginia was created
• Both sides expected a short, glorious war, but got a blood bath that lasted
until 1865. Both sides were passionate and that it was right.
The War Continues
Lincoln Abuses His Power… (Ch. 20)
• Writ of habeas corpus
– Latin for “you have the body”
– Gave judges the power to command the presence of a
person before court.
• Both accused & accuser must appear before court
• It required government to explain WHY a person was being
detained.
• Congress was not in session; Lincoln acted on his
own authority to suspend habeas corpus during the
Civil War, arguing Article I, Section 9 of the
Constitution
Group Activity:
e In groups of 2-3, you need to read through the
documents on “The Suspension of Habeas Corpus.”
One will be pro-Lincoln & his choice; the other will
be anti-Lincoln & his choice.
e Create a chart with 2 columns and the following
headings:
–Lincoln was RIGHT to suspend Habeas Corpus
–Lincoln was WRONG to suspend Habeas Corpus
A nation divided
• Confederate States of America:
– Before Ft. Sumter:
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•
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•
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South Carolina
Florida
Georgia
Alabama
Mississippi
Louisiana
Texas
– After Ft. Sumter:
•
•
•
•
Virginia
North Carolina
Tennessee
Arkansas
• United States of America
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
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Maine
Vermont
New Hampshire
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Connecticut
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Ohio
Indiana
Illinois
Iowa
Michigan
Wisconsin
Minnesota
California
Border States: Missouri,
Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware
Map of the North vs. South
First Years of a LONG War:
1861-1862 (Ch. 19)
• Many expected a short
war…few weeks
• Lincoln ordered only a
90-day enlistment
period
• “ON TO RICHMOND!”
First Battle of Bull Run (July ’61)
• 1st major battle of war
• Location: near Bull Run Creek (Manassas Junction, VA)
• 30K Union troops marched from DC to attack Confederate
forces
• Union was close to victory
– Confederate reinforcements under Gen. Stonewall Jackson
counterattacked & sent Union troops in disorderly & panicky flight
back to DC
– “Rebel Yell”
• IMPACT: North realized it was going to be a LONG & bloody
war; South grew complacent and had trouble with deserters
(felt the war was over)
Anaconda Plan
• Union military strategy to strangle the South
by blockading its coasts
• Control the Mississippi to cut of Confederacy
in half
• Sherman’s March to the Sea
• Capture key cities in the South:
Richmond, Atlanta, Charleston
Eastern Theater:
Peninsula Campaign (April-June ’62)
• Union Gen. McClellan insisted that his troops be given a good
training & discipline before heading into battle
• McClellan often overcautious & exasperated Lincoln
• McClellan’s army invaded VA b/t James & York Rivers vs. direct
attack
• McClellan met the brilliant military tactics of Confederate
Gen. Lee.
• McClellan was forced to retreat and ordered back over the
Potomac…and replaced.
• RESULT: CONFEDERATE VICTORY
nd
2
Battle of BR (July ’62)
• Lee took advantage of the change of Union
Generals
– Tricked the new Union Gen (Pope)
– Struck the enemy’s flank
– Sent the Union army backward toward BR
– Union Gen. Pope retreated back to DC
• RESULT: CONFEDERATE VICTORY
• McClellan replaced Pope
Antietam (Sept. ’62)
• Lee invaded Maryland to take it from the Union &
encourage foreign intervention (GB) on behalf of the
South
• McClellan knew of Lee’s plans b/c of copy of battle
plans had been dropped by Con. officer.
• Resulted in the bloodiest single day of battle
• OUTCOME: Lee forced to retreat back into VA;
McClellan removed for the final time by Lincoln for
failing to pursue Lee’s weakness…militarily a DRAW
between both sides
• IMPACT: South didn’t receive recognition or aid from
a foreign power; opened the door for Emancipation
Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation
• Lincoln’s declaration that freed enslaved
people in the rebelling territory, but not slaves
in the Union or Border States
• Did Lincoln have that authority?
• CONFISCATION ACT: Union army could
confiscate slaves as they invaded South on the
basis they were “contraband” of war
Impact of Emancipation Proclamation
• Many Northerners felt it went too far;
opposed fighting an “abolition war”
• Desertions increased from Border States
• Republicans lost mid-term elections
• Abolitionists thought Lincoln did not go far
enough; though some pleased
• South accused Lincoln of trying to stir up a
slave insurrection
Bell Ringer: Brainstorming Ideas
• Respond to the following question by creating
a thesis statement and a brief outline of key
points you will make.
• “The South never had a chance to win the Civil
War.” Assess this statement with respect to
specific military, economic, political, and social
factors.
Battle of Fredericksburg (Dec. ’62)
• New Union Gen. Burnside recklessly attacked
CSA Gen. Lee in Fredericksburg.
• Union suffered deep losses
• The romance fell out of war
• SIGNIFICANCE: no prospect of military victory
for either side
Monitor vs. Merrimac (Spring ‘62)
• Union tried to keep economic & naval advantages over
the South
• During the Peninsula Campaign, CSA was able to slip the
Merrimac into the river and attack the Union wooden
ships
• Union countered with its own ironclad, Monitor
• The 2 ships lasted for 5-hours & ended in a draw.
• RESULT: Union was able to stop the South’s new weapon
from breaking the blockade. Both ironclads destroyed
wooden sailing ships for future of naval warfare.
Foreign Affairs during the War
• Trent Affair: CSA sent delegates to GB for
recognition of the CSA. Union stopped ship &
delegates held prisoner…later released but
never gained recognition
• Raiders: CSA was purchasing old ships from
GB, Union stopped future sales by threatening
war with GB
• “King Cotton”: GB found other sources for its
demand of cotton (Egypt, India)
2 Factors of GB not recognizing CSA
• Failure of clear CSA victory at Antietam
• Emancipation Proclamation made ending
slavery the main objective for the Union. This
appealed to British working class
Thirteenth Amendment
• Standing in the way of full emancipation was the
U.S. Constitution
• Process was started on passing an amendment
(passed after Lincoln’s death)
• Simply stated: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude,
except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been
duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place
subject to their jurisdiction.”
Freedmen in the War
• After the E.P., hundreds of thousands of
southern slaves walked away from slavery to
seek protection from approaching Union
armies.
• 200K African Americans fought in segregated
regiments in the Union army and navy
– Ex: Massachusetts 54th Regiment (Glory)
The Union Triumphs (1863-1865)
• Turning Points
1. Vicksburg (Spring 1863): Union controlled most of
Mississippi River & New Orleans. Grant began siege
against city of Vicksburg. After 7 weeks, Confederates
surrendered the city. Union now controlled Mississippi
& cut TX, LA, & Ark. from rest of Confederacy
2. Gettysburg (July 1863): Lee took offensive leading an
army into Maryland; 3 day decisive battle of the war;
went back and forth b/t USA & CSA; Lee retreated &
never regained the offensive
•
•
•
•
Gettysburg Address
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new
nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created
equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so
conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that
war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those
who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper
that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow
-- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it,
far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long
remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the
living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here
have thus far so nobly advanced.
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from
these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the
last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not
have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and
that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the
earth.
Union changes command…again…Grant
• After wins in the West, Grant was named commander
of ALL the Union Armies & moved to Virginia.
• Grant realized the South’s supplies were quickly running
out & systematically began to wear down the South
• Warfare changed and trenches were used
• No longer was this a war “between gentlemen” but a
total modern war against civilians as well as soldiers.
1864…war winds down
• Sherman’s March (Sept ‘64 to Feb
‘65): Started from Chattanooga to
Atlanta to Savannah to Columbia
& north; army of 100K destroyed
everything in its path—everything
the CSA could use to survive
• IMPACT: broke the will of the
South & its ability to fight on
Election of 1864
• Republican: Abraham Lincoln (i)
• Democrat: Gen. George McClellan
The End of the War
• Effects of blockade, Sherman, spread hunger
in much of the South
• Grant continued to outflank Lee’s army until
they collapsed @ Petersburg followed by
Richmond (April 1865)
• Confederate army surrounded near
Appomattox Court House in VA
• April 9, 1865Lee surrendered to Grant
Assassination of Lincoln
• April 14, 1865 John
Wilkes Booth shot
Lincoln @ the Ford’s
Theater
– Conspirator attacked
Sec. of State Seward
Write and Share:
With a partner (or two) respond to the following question.
IDENTIFY AND ANALYZE SEVERAL IMPORTANT
FACTORS THAT LED TO THE CIVIL WAR.
Effects of the War on Civilian Life
POLITICAL, ECONOMIC,
& SOCIAL CHANGE
Political Change
• Electoral process continued during the War
• Civil Liberties: during the war, the gov was more
concerned w/ war than protecting citizens’
constitutional rights
– Ex Parte Milligan (1866): Supreme Court ruled that
the gov acted properly in Indiana where some
citizens had been subject to military trials
• Draft: started w/ volunteer force, later
conscription of those 20-45 yrs old; find suitable
substitute or pay $300 fee
Political Change (cont.)
• Long-term effects: balance of power shifted
between the North and South
• After the C.W., the supremacy of the federal
government over states was treated as an est.
fact.
• Abolition of slavery gave new meaning and
legitimacy to the concept of American
democracy
Economic Change
• North financed the war ($2.6 BILLION) by the sale
of government bonds. Still not enough:
– Raising tariffs (Morrill Tariff); adding excise taxes; and
instituting the first income tax
– Greenbacks: issued by U.S. Treasury but not
redeemable for gold; led to inflation
• Modernizing northern economy: no real
significant change; CON: workers’ wages did not
keep up w/ inflation; PRO: modernized and
consolidated the industries
Economic Change (cont.)
• Republicans in Congress passed ambitious
economic programs:
– National banking system
– Morrill Tariff Act: raise revenue & protect American businesses
– Homestead Act: promoted settlement in Great Plains by
offering 160 acres if ind/family farmed it for 5 years
– Morrill Land Grant: encouraged states to use sale of federal
lands to maintain ag & tech colleges
– Pacific Railway Act: transcontinental RR
• Women:
Social Change
– Filled in for men who were off fighting (fields,
factories, offices, stores, gov) in North & South
– Served as military nurses
• Effects:
– Field of nursing opened to women
– Opened the door for equal voting rights
Social Change (cont.)
• Biggest group impacted: former slaves (3.5 in
South, 500K in border states)
– 13th Amendment banned slavery
• Tragic human loss as result of war:
– 620K men died
– $15 billion in war costs & damaged property
– Destroyed slavery and southern economy
• Catalyst for transformation to modern industrial
society
Chapter 22
RECONSTRUCTION
Reconstruction?
• YEARS: 1865-1877
• Attempt to achieve national reunification and
reconciliation after the Civil War and improve life of
former slaves
• 4 Questions to answer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
How to rebuild the South?
What would be the condition of the A-A in the South?
How would the South be integrated into the Union?
Who would control the process: Southern states,
president or Congress?
Q#1:
How to rebuild the South?
• Passing of the 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments
were passed
– Outlawed slavery (13)
– Defined a citizen (14)
– Suffrage regardless of race or color (15)
• Major Southern cities destroyed
– Banks, factories, transportation in ruins
– Cotton fields were full of weeds
Q#2:
What would be the
condition of the A-A in the
South?
• Freedmen’s Bureau: to help the unskilled,
uneducated, poverty-stricken ex-slaves to
survive (social services, medical care, etc)
Q#3:
How would the South be
integrated into the Union?
• Southern states had
– to ratify the 13-15th Amendments
– Swear allegiance to the US
– Obey emancipation
Q#4:
Who would control the process:
Southern states, president or
Congress?
• Lincoln and Congress had varying views on
what to do with the rebelling states:
– Lincoln: recognize a new state gov; 10% of exConfederate voters to pledge loyalty of the US and
obey emancipation
– Congress: 50% ex-Confederate voters to pledge
loyalty; iron-clad oath; saw CSA as “conquered
territory” and subject to Congress’ conditions and
wishes
Reconstructing
Society
• Physical and Economic Conditions
– Buildings, infrastructure, farms destroyed
throughout South
– People poor; property value plummets,
Confederate bonds worthless
– 1/5 white males dead, many maimed; tens of
thousands black males dead
• African Americans as Voters
– African Americans are largest group of Southern
Republicans
Society during
Reconstruction
• Politics and African Americans
– 1865–1877, African Americans hold local, state, federal
office
• Sharecropping and Tenant Farming
– Landless African Americans sign labor contracts with
planters
- neither freedmen nor planters happy with system
Sharecropping—owner gives land, seed, tools for part of
crops
Tenant farming—rent land from owner; buy own tools
Collapse of
Reconstruction
• Ku Klux Klan
– Ku Klux Klan (KKK)—Confederate veterans group that
turns terrorist
– Grows rapidly; aims to restore white supremacy
• The Panic of 1873
– Business opportunities in South lead investors to excessive
debt
– Largest government securities dealer bankrupts, starts
panic of 1873
– banks, businesses close; stock market collapses
– Panic triggers 5-year economic depression
Ending of
Reconstruction
• Election of 1876
– Republicans nominate Governor Rutherford B. Hayes, not
Grant
– Democrats choose Governor Samuel J. Tilden
– Tilden wins popular vote, 1 shy of electoral; 20 electoral
disputed
• Compromise of 1877—Hayes gets presidency,
Democrats get:
- federal troops leave LA, SC
- funding for Southern railroad, waterways
- conservative Southerner in cabinet
– Compromise means end of Reconstruction
Legacy of
Reconstruction
• Republicans fail to protect rights they gave to
former slaves
• Unwillingness to distribute land blocks
economic independence
• Amendments abolish slavery, give basis for
civil rights legislation
• African-American schools, civic groups
increase literacy, opportunity