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PRONOUNS
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Pronoun
Pro + Noun
In place of
He is reading
Naming word
Mahesh is reading
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Kinds of Pronouns
-----------------------------------------------------(1)Personal Pronoun
(2) Relative Pronoun
(3) Interrogative Pronoun
(4) Demonstrative Pronoun
(5) Distributive Pronoun
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(6) Indefinite Pronoun
(7) Reflexive Pronoun
(8) Emphatic Pronoun
(9) Reciprocal Pronoun
(10) Exclamatory Pronoun
(1) Personal Pronoun: Pronoun that
indicates person is called a Personal
Pronoun. Example:- He, She, It, We, You,
they etc.
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Person Number Subject Object Possessive Reflexive
1st Person Singular
I
Me
My/Mine Myself
Plural
We
Us
Our/Ours Ourself
2nd Person Singular
Plural
You
You
You
You
3rd Person Singular
He
She
Its
They
Him
Her
Itself
Them
It
Plural
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Your/Yours Yourself
Your/Yours Yourself
His
Her
Their
Himself
Herself
Themselves
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(2) Relative Pronoun:- A Pronoun which
shows relation is called Relative Pronoun.
Example: (a) the girl, whom you met
yesterday was my sister.
(b) The pen, which you have taken, is mine.
(c) This is the lady whom everybody
praises.
(3) Interrogative Pronoun:- A Pronoun
which asks a question is called an
Interrogative Pronoun.
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(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Who won the match?
Which is her pen?
Whom does he hate?
Which of these book do you like?
Interrogative Pronouns have been
underlined above.
(4) Demonstrative Pronoun: A Pronoun
demonstrates a Noun, an object, a
Complement, etc. is called a
Demonstrative Pronoun.
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Example:(1) This is your result. (2) That
was a silly mistake. (3) These are my books.
(4) Those were my friend’s books.
(5) Distributive Pronoun: A Pronoun which
distributes a group or a pair is called a
Distributive Pronoun.
Each/Every/Either/Neither/Anyone/None/
etc. are Distributive Pronouns.
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Here's a list of pronouns of this type...
each - "From each according to his ability,
to each according to his need."
either - You may answer either of these
(two) questions first.
neither - Neither of the answers is correct.
any - You may bring any of your friends.
none - None of our students failed last
year.
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Distributive Pronoun: replaces nouns that are taken one
at a time, always take a singular verb.
There are three distributive pronouns:
1) each: refers to all of two more nouns
Example: Each of the desks needs to be cleaned.
2) either: refers to two nouns, one or the other of the two
Example: You can use either of them.
3) neither: refers to two nouns, not one nor the other of
the two
Example: Neither of my parents has been to Japan.
Sentence Position: see noun.
Level: beginner, intermediate.
Common Learner Difficulties:
1) using a singular verb following a plural noun that may
follow the distributive pronoun.
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1) Each of these pens will be sold. (2) None
of the students can solve it, I shall bethankful to God. (3) Either of these
students must have taken it. (4) Neither of
your friends will come. Distributive
Pronouns have been underlined.
Note: (of) is often found after Distributive
Pronoun.
(6) Indefinite Pronoun: A Pronoun which is
indefinite is called an Indefinite Pronoun.
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All, Some, One, Many, Few, Somebody,
Nobody etc. are Indefinite Pronouns. Ex.
(1) None have come to help you.
(2) A few cab build houses.
(3) One should know one’s job.
(4) Many have been failed.
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(7) Reflexive Pronoun: A Pronoun which
reflects the action towards the subject is
called a Reflexive Pronoun. Example:
(1) She hurt herself while playing.
(2) You have invented this machine
yourself.
(3) I shall do it myself.
(4) He solved his problem himself.
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(8) Emphatic Pronoun: A Pronoun which is
used for emphasis is called an Emphatic
Pronoun.
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An emphatic pronoun is a reflexive
pronoun used to emphasize the
antecedent; for example:
(1) I myself made the cookies.
(2) You yourself are a good friend.
(3) They themselves fixed the roof.
(4) He himself made pancakes for
breakfast.
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(5) I myself is enough to solve the
problem.
(6) You yourself will return my money.
(7) He himself knows me very well.
(8) They themselves will have to earn
money.
A Reflexive Pronoun is used after the verb
but Emphatic Pronoun is used before
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-the Verb.
Example:
(1) she did it herself without any guidance.
Verb
Reflexive Pronoun
(2) She herself did it in hurry without any-guidance.
Emphatic Pronoun
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(9) Reciprocal Pronoun: A Pronoun which
shows relation with one another is called a
Reciprocal Pronoun.
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Example.
(1) All the enemies kill one another.
(2) The two girls hate each other.
Rule: (a) Each other is used for two
persons.
(b) One another is used for more
than two persons
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What is a reciprocal pronoun?
You must be well familiar with the verb
‘reciprocate’ which means to give back or
give in return. A reciprocal pronoun as
such is used when there are two or more
individuals involved in the action and when
the same is reciprocated.
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What is the use of reciprocal pronouns?
What are the things to remember while
using reciprocal pronouns?
The phrases ‘one another’ and ‘each other’
are pronominal phrases or reciprocal
pronouns that express a mutual relation
referring to the subject in the plural.
Reciprocal pronouns are used to indicate
an action carried out by two persons and
so also the consequences experienced at
the same time.
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What is the use of reciprocal pronouns?
Reciprocal pronouns simplify the meaning
of sentences especially where the same
idea has to be expressed more than once in
a sentence. For example the following
sentence, “Paul gave Ann a diamond ring
on their engagement ceremony and Ann
gave Paul a diamond ring” can be written
better using a reciprocal pronoun.
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There is no doubt that the following
sentence sounds better, “Paul and Ann
gave each other diamond rings on their
engagement ceremony.”
Another example would make the usage
clearer: “Paul and Ann hugged each other.”
The reciprocal pronoun ‘each other’ used
in the above sentence indicates that both
Paul and Ann carrying out the action of
hugging got the consequence, ‘hugs’ at the
same time.
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The reciprocal pronoun ‘one another’ is
used when more than two persons are
referred to in a given situation. For
example as in the following cases, “The
boys in this class generally help one
another while doing the project.” “The
members of the football team
congratulated one another on winning the
world cup.”
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What are the things to remember while
using reciprocal pronouns?
The commonly used reciprocal
pronouns ‘one another’ and ‘each other’
are not words used individually but are
used together as phrases.
The use of a reciprocal pronoun suggests
the existence of multiple nouns or a plural
noun in the sentence. This is because a
reciprocal pronoun requires another
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This is because a reciprocal pronoun
requires another person to share the
feeling or action.
Reciprocal nouns are used when two or
more persons are performing the same the
same action or thing.
Reciprocal pronouns should be used when
both the individuals are equally
responsible for the action or feeling.
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Reciprocal pronouns can be used in
the possessive form as in this sentence,
“Paul and Ann can wear each
other’s jacket. Thus by adding the
apostrophe‘s’ to the reciprocal pronoun,
the meaning is correctly expressed in
the possessive form. Here it means that
Paul and Ann both have jackets that the
other can fit into easily.
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