Wheelock XXIV
Ablative Absolute
Passive Periphrastic
Dative of Agent
Ablative Absolute
Last chapter, we learned participles:
Rōmam videntēs, virī gaudēbant.
Now, the ablative absolute
Rōmā vīsā, virī gaudēbant.
(With) Rome having been seen, the men were
rejoicing.
Ablative Absolute
Why is it called an ablative absolute?
Ablative?
Absolute?
Translating: hīs rēbus audītīs...
(With) these things having been heard...*
When/Since/After/etc. these things had been heard...
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Ablative Absolute
Sometimes, the ablative absolute contains other
words: Eō imperium tenente, ēventum timeō.
With him holding the power, I fear the outcome.
Sometimes, the participial form of sum is
deleted, leaving just a noun-noun or nounadjective combo.
- Caesare duce, nihil timēbimus.
- Caesare incertō, bellum timēbāmus.
Passive Periphrastic
Name:
- Passive because it uses the passive voice (in fact,
it uses the gerundive)
- Periphrastic because it's more than one word
GERUNDIVE + SUM
Note: gerundive agrees with the subject (of sum)
in gender, number, and case
Passive Periphrastic
A passive periphrastic conveys the idea of
necessary and obligatory action. Hence,
id faciendum est is not merely this is
about to be done but rather this must be
done
Translating:
Puella amanda est. = The girl is to be loved.
= The girl must be loved.*
= The girl has to be loved.*
Puella amanda erat.= The girl had to be loved.
Dative of Agent
Instead of ablative of agent, the dative of agent
is used with the passive periphrastic
construction.
Literal translations would be super awkward... like more
awkward than saying good-bye to someone and then
walking the same way. Therefore, translate like it's
ablative even though it's dative.
Hic liber mihi legendus est.
This book must be read by me.
Practice
1. Explain the term "absolute."
2. What participle is used in a passive
periphrastic? What two-letter combination
can be used to identify it?
3. What does the passive periphrastic indicate?
4. Urbe captā, Caesar gentēs dēlēvit.
5. Illa fēmina omnibus laudanda est.
6. Pāx ducibus nostrīs petenda erat.
Translate. Identify constructions.
1. Carthāgō dēlenda est.
2. Asiā victā, dux Rōmānus fēlīx multōs servōs in
Italiam mīsit.
3. Quidquid dīcendum est, līberē dīcam. līberē = adverb
4. Haec omnia vulnera tibi nunc sānanda sunt.
- sānāre = to heal
5. Nec tumultum nec mortem violentam timēbō,
Augustō terrās tenente.
6. Tarquiniō expulsō, nōmen rēgis audīre nōn
poterat populus Rōmānus.
Dē Cupiditāte
Homō stultus, "Ō cīvēs, cīvēs," inquit, "pecūnia
ante omnia quarenda est; virtūs et probitās post
pecūniam."
Pecūniae autem cupiditās fugienda est.
Fugienda etiam est cupitās glōriae; ēripit enim
lībertatem.
Caelō receptus propter virtūtem, Herculēs multōs
deōs salūtāvit; sed Plūtō veniente, quī Fortūnae
est fīlius, āvertit oculōs.
Tum, causā quaesītā, "Ōdī," inquit, "illum, quod
malīs amīcus est atque omnia corrumpit lucrī
causā."
salūtāre, to greet---Plutus, -ī, god of wealth
corrumpō, -ere, to corrupt---lucrum, -ī, gain/profit
The Satirist
Chapter XXIV Vocabulary Quiz
A
1. imperium, -iī
2. servus, -ī
3. fabula, -ae
4. recipio, recipere
B
5. excipio, excipere
6. accipio, accipere
7. quaero, quaerere
8. solacium, -iī
9. Someone invulnerable is not able to be ________.
10. If you were to deride J-Biebs, you would _______
down at him.
Chapter XXIV Grammar Quiz
Translate and identify the underlined construction.
Puella amanda est.
Romā visā, virī gaudēbant.
Caesar, urbe captā, gentēs dēlēvit.
Pāx ducibus nostrīs petenda erat.
Carthāgō dēlenda est.
Quidquid dīcendum est, līberē dīcam.
Pecūniae autem cupiditās fugienda est.
Imperiō acceptō, dux patriam recēpit.
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