ADVANCED
WORD POWER
Second Edition
BETH JOHNSON
JANET M. GOLDSTEIN
© 2011 Townsend Press
Unit Three: Chapter 14
• anarchy
• quixotic
• authoritarian
• salutary
• depravity
• suppress
• meager
• temerity
• predilection
• turbulence
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 anarchy
– noun
• The day after the earthquake, the city was in a state of anarchy, with people
looting stores, stealing cars, and destroying property.
• Following the revolution, there was a period of anarchy, with several
different groups claiming to govern the country and no one really in control.
Anarchy means
A. poverty.
B. disorder.
C. sorrow.
Anarchy during riots in 1863
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 anarchy
– noun
• The day after the earthquake, the city was in a state of anarchy, with people
looting stores, stealing cars, and destroying property.
• Following the revolution, there was a period of anarchy, with several
different groups claiming to govern the country and no one really in control.
Anarchy means
A. poverty.
B. disorder.
C. sorrow.
Anarchy during riots in 1863
The city must have been in a state of
disorder if people were looting,
stealing, and destroying property. If no
one was in control, the government
must have been in a state of disorder.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 authoritarian
– adjective
• Ms. Pettigrew is easygoing outside the classroom, but when class is in
session, she is a tough, authoritarian teacher.
• Some parents let their children argue over every decision, while others
are authoritarian and expect to be obeyed immediately.
Authoritarian means
A. favoring freedom.
B. favoring firm discipline.
C. uncertain.
Photo: Queensland Figaro, 1888
An authoritarian teacher
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 authoritarian
– adjective
• Ms. Pettigrew is easygoing outside the classroom, but when class is in
session, she is a tough, authoritarian teacher.
• Some parents let their children argue over every decision, while others
are authoritarian and expect to be obeyed immediately.
Authoritarian means
A. favoring freedom.
B. favoring firm discipline.
C. uncertain.
Photo: Queensland Figaro, 1888
An authoritarian teacher
In the classroom, the teacher is tough,
favoring firm discipline, in contrast to
her generally easygoing nature. Parents
favoring firm discipline would expect to
be obeyed immediately.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 depravity
– noun
• Do you think the death penalty is justified for crimes of shocking depravity?
• In the horror movie, the depravity of the villain was rendered in gory detail. I
still have nightmares about it.
Depravity means
A. passion.
B. anger.
C. wickedness.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 depravity
– noun
• Do you think the death penalty is justified for crimes of shocking depravity?
• In the horror movie, the depravity of the villain was rendered in gory detail. I
still have nightmares about it.
Depravity means
A. passion.
B. anger.
C. wickedness.
The word shocking suggest that such crimes show unpardonable
wickedness. Horror scenes gory enough to cause lasting nightmares
would likely have portrayed the villain’s wickedness.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 meager
– adjective
• The furniture in the apartment was meager, consisting of just a cot, one
chair, and a small desk.
• Holly triple-spaced her paper and left very wide margins, but it still fell
far short of the five pages that had been assigned. Her instructor wrote
on it, “This is a meager effort.”
Meager means
A. inaccurate.
B. inadequate.
C. inspired.
Meager
nutrition
Picture:
Abundant nutrition
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 meager
– adjective
• The furniture in the apartment was meager, consisting of just a cot, one
chair, and a small desk.
• Holly triple-spaced her paper and left very wide margins, but it still fell
far short of the five pages that had been assigned. Her instructor wrote
on it, “This is a meager effort.”
Meager means
A. inaccurate.
B. inadequate.
C. inspired.
Meager
nutrition
Picture:
Abundant nutrition
If it were advertised as a “fully
furnished” apartment, the three pieces of
furniture would be inadequate. Holly’s
effort was inadequate because her paper
was much shorter than required.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 predilection
– noun
• Maddie always had a predilection for vegetarianism. She stopped eating
meat when she was only five.
• Like most Labrador retrievers, Beau has a predilection for water—he
will jump into any pool, pond, or river he sees.
Predilection means
A. a liking.
B. an avoidance.
C. a fear.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 predilection
– noun
• Maddie always had a predilection for vegetarianism. She stopped eating
meat when she was only five.
• Like most Labrador retrievers, Beau has a predilection for water—he
will jump into any pool, pond, or river he sees.
Predilection means
A. a liking.
B. an avoidance.
C. a fear.
If Maddie has preferred to omit meat from her diet since the age of
five, she has almost always had a liking for vegetarianism. If the dog
eagerly jumps into any body of water he sees, then he must have a
liking for water.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 quixotic
– adjective
• Angel quit his job to protest his company’s hiring policies, without considering
the consequences of this quixotic gesture. Now he cannot support his family.
• Jim Smith’s candidacy in the race for governor seems quixotic. He has some
grand, lofty ideas, but he’s an unknown with no sources of funding.
Quixotic means
A. noble but unwise.
B. sensible but unfair.
C. sneaky.
Photo: U. S. Army
Don Quixote is a quixotic hero,
who uses a slender branch as a sword.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 quixotic
– adjective
• Angel quit his job to protest his company’s hiring policies, without considering
the consequences of this quixotic gesture. Now he cannot support his family.
• Jim Smith’s candidacy in the race for governor seems quixotic. He has some
grand, lofty ideas, but he’s an unknown with no sources of funding.
Quixotic means
A. noble but unwise.
B. sensible but unfair.
C. sneaky.
Photo: U. S. Army
Don Quixote is a quixotic hero,
who uses a slender branch as a sword.
Protesting unfair policies is noble, but it
is unwise not to consider the
consequences of one’s actions. Having
lofty ideas is noble, but it is unwise to
run for office without adequate funding.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 salutary
– adjective
• Studies have shown that garlic has several salutary effects, including
boosting the body’s ability to fight off illness.
• The doctor recommended that Mrs. Thornton take extra calcium, which
has the salutary effect of strengthening the bones.
Salutary means
A. wholesome.
B. unknown.
C. dangerous.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 salutary
– adjective
• Studies have shown that garlic has several salutary effects, including
boosting the body’s ability to fight off illness.
• The doctor recommended that Mrs. Thornton take extra calcium, which
has the salutary effect of strengthening the bones.
Salutary means
A. wholesome.
B. unknown.
C. dangerous.
Boosting the body’s ability to fight off illness would be a wholesome
benefit of eating garlic; bad breath would not. Strengthening bones
would be a wholesome benefit of taking extra calcium.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 suppress
– verb
• Bonnie couldn’t suppress a giggle in church when the minister, calling
for prayer, said, “With eyes bowed and heads closed . . .”
• “I am opposed to censorship in any form,” said the lecturer. “When free
speech is suppressed, all other freedoms are soon crushed as well.”
Photo: Gerald L. Nino, CBP - U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security
Suppress means
A. to arouse.
B. to reveal.
C. to keep down.
Officers learn how to suppress
a suspected terrorist.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 suppress
– verb
• Bonnie couldn’t suppress a giggle in church when the minister, calling
for prayer, said, “With eyes bowed and heads closed . . .”
• “I am opposed to censorship in any form,” said the lecturer. “When free
speech is suppressed, all other freedoms are soon crushed as well.”
Photo: Gerald L. Nino, CBP - U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security
Suppress means
A. to arouse.
B. to reveal.
C. to keep down.
Officers learn how to suppress
a suspected terrorist.
Most people would try to keep
down their giggling during prayers.
Censorship is a way to keep down
free speech.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 temerity
– noun
• People who rush into marriage often regret their temerity later. There’s
an old saying: “Marry in haste; repent at leisure.”
• Flagged down for a minor traffic violation, the driver had the temerity
to try to outrace the police car. This foolhardy attempt landed him in jail.
Temerity means
A. fear.
B. regret.
C. recklessness.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 temerity
– noun
• People who rush into marriage often regret their temerity later. There’s
an old saying: “Marry in haste; repent at leisure.”
• Flagged down for a minor traffic violation, the driver had the temerity
to try to outrace the police car. This foolhardy attempt landed him in jail.
Temerity means
A. fear.
B. regret.
C. recklessness.
If many people later regret having rushed into marriage, then a hasty
marriage is often an act of rash recklessness. The word foolhardy
suggests that trying to outrace a police car is an act of bold
recklessness.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 turbulence
– noun
• “We may experience some turbulence,” the pilot announced. A moment later,
the plane was shaking so violently that some passengers began to scream.
• The kindergarten room was a scene of turbulence, with the kids racing around,
throwing things, and yelling at the top of their lungs.
Turbulence means
A. wild disorder.
B. a turning point.
C. a repeat performance.
Photo: Jerry MagnuM Porsbjer
Kayaking in turbulence
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 turbulence
– noun
• “We may experience some turbulence,” the pilot announced. A moment later,
the plane was shaking so violently that some passengers began to scream.
• The kindergarten room was a scene of turbulence, with the kids racing around,
throwing things, and yelling at the top of their lungs.
Turbulence means
A. wild disorder.
B. a turning point.
C. a repeat performance.
Photo: Jerry MagnuM Porsbjer
Kayaking in turbulence
A violently shaking plane and screaming
passengers suggest wild disorder in the
sky. If kids were racing around, throwing
things, and yelling, then there was wild
disorder in the classroom.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. anarchy
B. authoritarian
C. depravity
D. meager
E. predilection
F. quixotic
G. salutary
H. suppress
I. temerity
J. turbulence
1. After being served only _________ refreshments at the meeting,
Julio stopped at a fast-food restaurant on the way home for a
cheeseburger.
2. Mom was a great believer in the _________ effects of fresh air
and sunshine, so she encouraged us children to play outside as
much as possible.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. anarchy
B. authoritarian
C. depravity
D. meager
E. predilection
F. quixotic
G. salutary
H. suppress
I. temerity
J. turbulence
meager refreshments at the meeting,
1. After being served only _________
Julio stopped at a fast-food restaurant on the way home for a
cheeseburger.
The light refreshments were insufficient to satisfy his hunger.
2. Mom was a great believer in the _________
salutary effects of fresh air
and sunshine, so she encouraged us children to play outside as
much as possible.
Mothers encourage activities that have beneficial effect on their children’s
health.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. anarchy
B. authoritarian
C. depravity
D. meager
E. predilection
F. quixotic
G. salutary
H. suppress
I. temerity
J. turbulence
3. The famous novel Lord of the Flies describes young boys living alone on
an island with no adult supervision, no rules, and no laws, and what
happens during that period of _________.
4. People who regularly _________ anger can develop physical ailments.
Rage that must stay hidden can show up as a rash, a headache, or an
upset stomach—and can even be a catalyst° for a heart attack or stroke.
5. Though it took place more than sixty years ago, the _________ of the
Nazis continues to shock and disturb us.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. anarchy
B. authoritarian
C. depravity
D. meager
E. predilection
F. quixotic
G. salutary
H. suppress
I. temerity
J. turbulence
3. The famous novel Lord of the Flies describes young boys living alone on
an island with no adult supervision, no rules, and no laws, and what
happens during that period of _________.
anarchy
Without adult supervision, there was an absence of authority or rules.
4. People who regularly _________
suppress anger can develop physical ailments.
Rage that must stay hidden can show up as a rash, a headache, or an
upset stomach—and can even be a catalyst° for a heart attack or stroke.
To keep their rage hidden, people may try to force their anger under control.
5. Though it took place more than sixty years ago, the _________
depravity of the
Nazis continues to shock and disturb us.
Many people are shocked and disturbed by the evil, morally corrupt
actions the Nazis took against innocent, helpless people.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. anarchy
B. authoritarian
C. depravity
D. meager
E. predilection
F. quixotic
G. salutary
H. suppress
I. temerity
J. turbulence
6. It’s easy to see that Amanda is the oldest child in her family.
Her ___________ manner shows that she’s accustomed to
being in charge.
7. Chaos theory seeks to describe __________ in natural systems
such as whirlpools and tornadoes, in which motion is wild and
unpredictable.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. anarchy
B. authoritarian
C. depravity
D. meager
E. predilection
F. quixotic
G. salutary
H. suppress
I. temerity
J. turbulence
6. It’s easy to see that Amanda is the oldest child in her family.
Her ___________
authoritarian manner shows that she’s accustomed to
being in charge.
Used to being in charge, her manner shows she expects total obedience.
turbulence in natural systems
7. Chaos theory seeks to describe __________
such as whirlpools and tornadoes, in which motion is wild and
unpredictable.
Whirlpools and tornadoes are examples of irregularity, disturbance, and
agitation of water and air that are found in nature.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. anarchy
B. authoritarian
C. depravity
D. meager
E. predilection
F. quixotic
G. salutary
H. suppress
I. temerity
J. turbulence
8. Few children have a(n) _________ for liver, broccoli, and spinach.
People develop a liking for such foods later in life, if at all.
9. The foolish young man decided to try to jump across the railroad track
before the train passed by. His _________ resulted in his losing a leg
and nearly cost him his life.
10. Aunt Julie e-mails her Congressional representative regularly on issues she
cares about. She says, “Maybe it’s _________—maybe nobody ever reads
what I write—but at least I feel like I’m trying to make a difference.”
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. anarchy
B. authoritarian
C. depravity
D. meager
E. predilection
F. quixotic
G. salutary
H. suppress
I. temerity
J. turbulence
predilection for liver, broccoli, and spinach.
8. Few children have a ___________
People develop a liking for such foods later in life, if at all.
Liking suggests that predilection means “preference” or “tendency to like.”
9. The foolish young man decided to try to jump across the railroad track
before the train passed by. His _________
temerity resulted in his losing a leg
and nearly cost him his life.
Jumping across the track just ahead of a train is an example of rash boldness.
10. Aunt Julie e-mails her Congressional representative regularly on issues she
cares about. She says, “Maybe it’s _________—maybe
nobody ever reads
quixotic
what I write—but at least I feel like I’m trying to make a difference.”
Although writing letters no one reads is impractical, trying to make a
difference is idealistic.