IGCSE EXAM REVISION
Lesson One
Cambridge IGCSE EXAM FORMAT
There are two possible exams you can sit
The Extension and the Core Paper.
CORE PAPER (Foundation)
 1 HOUR AND 45 MINUTES
 ANSWER TWO QUESTIONS ON ONE PASSAGE
 QUESTION ONE IS WORTH 30 MARKS
 QUESTION TWO IS WORTH 20 MARKS
 ELIGIBLE GRADES C-G
 40% OF THE COURSES TOTAL MARKS
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EXTENSION PAPER (Higher)
2 HOURS
3 QUESTIONS ON TWO PASSAGES WHICH
ARE LINKED BY A COMMON THEME
QUESTION ONE IS WORTH 20 MARKS.
QUESTION TWO IS WORTH 10 MARKS.
QUESTION THREE IS WORTH 20 MARKS.
ELIGIBLE GRADES ARE A-E
40% TOTAL MARKS
EXTENDED PAPER
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EXAM TIMINGS
Spend 15 minutes reading the two passages
Question One 42 minutes
Question Two 21 minutes
Question Three 42 Minutes
CORE PAPER
 Spend 10 minutes reading the passage
 Question One 55 minutes
 Question Two 40 minutes
ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES
 Both
CORE and EXTENDED
PAPERS are out of 50 marks.
 40 of those marks are awarded
on your reading skills
 10 marks on your writing skills.
Title
Language Effects
Learning Objectives:
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To be able to identify features of language
and explain the effects they can have on a
reader
Today we are going to focus on one of
the reading objectives. - R4 that is in
both the CORE AND EXTENDED PAPER
The four reading objectives are:
 R1 Understand and collate explicit
meanings
 R2 Understand, explain and collate
implicit meanings and attitudes
 R3 Select analyse and evaluate what is
relevant to specific purposes
 R4 Understand how writers achieve
effects.
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In the Extended Paper it is Question 2
that tests this reading objective
To answer this type of question you
need to be able to pick out and
interesting words and phrases.
 You need to be aware of language
features also known as linguistic
devices.
 You also need to be confident in
explaining the effect a certain word or
phrase has on the reader.
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How is language used
for effect?
Language is always used for some kind of effect or other. Often, without
commenting on specific linguistic devices, you can talk about the kind of
language a writer uses, noticing what kind of words are used, or what
kind of tone or style is created by language and structure. Look at these
examples…
The writer uses dramatic and violent language in order to
describe the horror of the attack at the end of the extract. Phrases
like “chill horror”, “sudden fear” and “thunderous crack” portray the
fear and terror experienced by the Indians who are attacked.
Powerful words such as “war”, “huge” and “ruining” emphasise
and perhaps exaggerate the seriousness of the issue.
The writer uses a chatty, informal tone, using contractions like
“I’m” “don’t” and “can’t”.
Language is highly descriptive, with adjectives such as “golden”
and “spectacular” conveying the writer’s appreciation for his
surroundings.
Common linguistic
devices
• 1st, 2nd or 3rd person
(narrative viewpoint)
• Directly addressing the
reader
• Imperatives
• Rhetorical questions
• Register Formal/Informal
language
• Diction Simple/Complex
vocabulary
• Figurative Language &
Imagery:
Similes/Metaphor/
Personification etc.
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Word play & puns
Alliteration
Rhyme & Rhythm
Anecdote & Allusion
Slogan & Catchphrase
Statistics & Facts
Exaggeration &
Hyperbole
Repetition
Humour
Lists
Emotive language
Punctuation type
Expert advice
Short sentences
Superlatives
Language Features
1.
Match the technique to the
definition
Direct Address/Audience
A.
Invites trust, suggests knowledge.
involvement
B.
Use of words like
2.
Anecdote
3.
Emotive Language
4.
Using facts and figures
demand/urge/want/frightening
C.
Ideas presented in a way that seems
opposite to what is really meant
D.
Little stories to involve reader/create
5.
Rhetorical Questions
6.
Short sentences
E.
Using words such as ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘us’ or ‘I’
7.
Expert opinion
F.
Questions that can not be answered
8.
Irony/Sarcasm
G.
To shock/surprise – make reader believe
sympathy
writer is knowledgeable
H.
Gets message across
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To prepare yourself for
answering Question 2 COMPLETE
THE PIXEL THERAPY AND
TESTING HANDOUTS.
Tips for answering -Extended Paper
Question 2
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Spend your time equally on both
paragraphs/parts of the question
Highlight a range of words and phrases that
seem powerful to you from both paragraphs.
Put quotation marks around your choices.
Avoid general comments such as the ‘writer
makes you feel that you are really there’ or ‘this
is a descriptive phrase.’
To explain effects, think of what the reader sees
and feels when reading the word or phrase.
You need to use up to five examples from each
paragraph. One or two examples are not enough
to get 7-10 marks.
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YOU MUST NEVER USE THE
FOLLOWING PHRASES!!!
The language is good
The language eye-catching
The language is effective
The language is interesting
The language makes the reader think
The language means…
… UNLESS YOU EXPLAIN WHY
Using PEEL
Point – Identify a technique
 Evidence – Give a short quotation
 Explain – The effect of this technique on
the reader
 Link – Refer back to the question (repeat
some of the words)
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EXAM PRACTICE
Extended Question 2 Bear Grylls

Read the extract as a group.
Re- read the descriptions of:
A) The fall in paragraph 3, beginning ‘‘I flip on to my
front’’
B) The accidents in paragraph 5, beginning ‘‘Instead, I
am in agony, writhing and crying.’’
Select words and phrases from these
descriptions, and explain how the writer has
created effects by using this language
Write between 1 and 1 ½ sides, allowing for the
size of your handwriting
You have 21 minutes to answer the question
EXAM PRACTICE
Extended Question 2- 2012 paper

Read the extract about Julia’s visit to the rainforest
as a group
 Re-read the descriptions of:
A) The rainforest and its wildlife
B)
in paragraph 1, from ‘The
family was trudging...’
Julia’s walk through the rainforest in search of her
parents in paragraph 4, from ‘hours later...’
Select words and phrases from these descriptions, and
explain how the writer has created effects by using
this language
Write between 1 and 1 ½ sides, allowing for the size of
your handwriting
You have 21 minutes to answer the question
PLENARY
 Read through the Model answer for
this question as a group.
 Highlight particular sentences you
think are good.
 In your book write down the top
three things the writer has done.