Parts of the Sentence
Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates
 A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete
thought.
 Every sentence has two basic parts, a subject and a
predicate.
 The subject is the part of the sentence which
something is being said.
 The predicate (verb) is the part that says something
about the subject.
Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates
 The simple subject is the key noun or pronoun (or
word or group of words acting as a noun) that tells
what a sentence is about.
 The simple subject may be a compound noun consisting
of more than one word.
 The simple predicate is the verb or verb phrase the
expresses the essential thought about the subject of
the sentence.
 A simple predicate that is a verb phrase consists of the
verb and any helping verbs.
Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates
Simple Subject
Simple Predicate
Dionne Warwick
will perform.
Owls
were hooting.
Jose’ Canseco
ran.
Things
change.
Complete Subjects and Complete Predicates
 The complete subject consists of the simple subject
and all the words that modify it.
 The complete predicate consists of the simple
predicate, or verb, and all the words that modify it or
complete its meaning.
Complete Subjects and Complete Predicates
Simple Subject
Simple Predicate
Talented Dionne Warwick
will perform her biggest hits.
Large owls with bright eyes
were hooting in the forest.
The speedy Jose’ Canseco
ran all the way home from first base.
Many things
change daily.
Compound subjects and Compound
predicates
 A compound subject is made up of two or more
simple subjects that are joined by a conjunction and
have the same verb.
 The conjunctions most commonly used to join the
subjects in a compound subject are and & or.


Tomatoes and carrots are colorful vegetables.
Tomatoes or carrots are my favorite vegetables.
 Correlative conjunctions may be used to join compound
subjects.


Neither the tomato nor the pepper grows underground.
Both the tomato and the pepper are rich in vitamin C.
Compound subjects and Compound
predicates
 A compound predicate (or compound verb) is made up of two or
more verbs or verb phrases that are joined by a conjunction and
have the same subject.
 Horses gallop and charge.
 Nina inserted the film, looked through the viewfinder, and
snapped the photograph.
 In compound verbs that contain verb phrases, the helping verb
may or may not be repeated before the second verb.
 Sea gulls will glide or swoop down to the ocean.
 A sentence may have both a compound subject and compound
predicate.
 Butterflies and hummingbirds dart and dip in the air.
Inverted Order
 At times a sentence is written in inverted order. In
other words, the predicate is before the subject.
Predicate
Subject
Across the field galloped
the three horses.
In the distance ran
a river.
 Remember, a word in a prepositional phrase is never
the subject.
Inverted Order
Predicate
Subject
There is
a chill in the air.
Here are
my thoughts on the subject.
When the word there or here begins a sentence and is
followed by a form of the verb to be, the subject follows the
verb. The words there and here are almost never the subject
of a sentence.
Inverted Order
 To find a subject in an inverted sentence, ask “who?” or
“what?”
Predicate
Subject
Across the field galloped
In the distance ran
There is
Here are
the three horses.
a river.
a chill in the air.
my thoughts on the subject.
 What galloped across the field?
 The three horses galloped.
 What is in the air?
 A chill is in the air.
Complements
 A complement is a word or group of words that
completes the meaning of a verb.
 There are four kinds of complements:
 Direct objects
 Indirect objects
 Object complements
 Subject complements
Direct Objects
 A direct object answers the question what or whom
after an action verb.
 The subject of a sentence usually performs that action
indicated by the verb. That action may be directed
toward or received by someone or something – direct
object. Nouns, pronouns or words serving as nouns can
be direct objects.



Carlos served dinner. [Carlos served what?]
Marie admires him deeply. [Marie admires whom?]
Carlos served a Mexican dinner and a fabulous dessert.
[Carlos served what?]
Indirect Objects
 An indirect object answers the question to whom, for
who, to what and for what after an action verb.
 In most cases a sentence may have an indirect object
only if it has a direct object. The indirect object will
always come between the verb and the direct object.
 Tyrone served his sisters dinner.
 Greta saved him a seat.
 Kim saved Rosa and Jose’ seats.
 The children gave the worthy charity all their savings.
 Marsha gave the game her best effort.
Object Complements
 An object complement answers the question what?
after a direct object. In other words, it completes the
meaning of the direct object by identifying or
describing it.
 Object complements occur only in sentences with
direct objects and only in those sentences with the
following action verbs or similar verbs that have the
general meaning of “make” or “consider.”
 Appoint elect
 Choose
render consider
make call
find
name
think
Object Complements
 An object complement usually follows a direct object.
It may be an adjective, a noun, or a pronoun.
 Residents find the park peaceful. [adjective]
 Katie appointed me assistant, treasurer, and cook.
[nouns]
 My grandmother considers the property hers. [pronoun]
Subject Complements
 A subject complement follows a subject and a linking
verb and identifies or describes the subject.
 There are two kinds of subject complements: predicate
nominatives and predicate adjectives.
 A Predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun that
follows a linking verb (sob) and points back to the
subject to rename it or to identify it further.





Sopranos are singers.
Clearly the star of the opera was she.
Many current opera stars are Italians or Spaniards.
Julia became both a musician and an actress.
That experience remains a cherished memory for me.
Subject Complements
 A predicate adjective follows a linking verb and points
back to the subject and describes it.
 Ballerinas are graceful.
 Ballerinas must be extremely dedicated.
 Most ballerinas seem intense and hard-working.
 Predicate adjectives may follow any linking verb.
 I felt very carefree.
 Only a few marathoners appear fresh even now.
 The water tasted delicious.
 I grew increasingly tired.
 My sister appeared weary.
 My friend Tanya looked exhausted but happy.