Understanding and Producing NonFiction Texts (Higher)
REVISION GUIDE
You will need the
Higher insert to
accompany this
guide.
Exam Date
Wednesday 7 November 2012
Section A: Reading
You will...
•Read 3 non-fiction texts (sources 1, 2, and 3)
•Answer 4 Questions.
•Spend up to 1 hour and 10 minutes reading the
texts and answering the questions.
Exam Tip:
• Read question 1, then read source 1 and then answer question 1.
Read question 2, then read source 2 and then answer question 2.
Read question 3, then read source 3 and then answer question 3.
Read question 4, skim read both texts and the answer question 4.
•
Underline/annotate the texts as you read them.
Question 1
•
This question will always require you to respond to Source 1 only.
•
It is worth 8 marks. You should spend 10-12 minutes answering this
question.
•
Aim to write about 5-8 different bits of information.
•
You must find and summarise information in your own words,
using short quotations as evidence.
This is not a language question, therefore you do
not need to analyse the language.
Complete the tasks
on the next page...
1. Read source 1 of the insert.
2. Read the student’s response and comments to the question below.
Begins by using the wording in the exam question
Student’s
own words
What she
has been
doing
Interprets
meaning
Read Source 1, the online travel article called Rafting on the Grand
Canyon by Elisabeth Hyde.
1. What do you learn from Elisabeth Hyde’s article about where she
has been and what she has been doing? (8 marks)
In this article, we learn that Elisabeth Hyde and her family spent
almost two weeks rafting down the “Colorado River through the Grand
Canyon” in North America. Every day, she spent “five to eight” hours in
the water in a 6m raft and when she wasn’t rafting down the river, she
was “eating, sleeping or bathing” in the area surrounding the river. We
also learn that she enjoyed being there as she described it as “one of
the most spectacular environments on earth”.
Where she
has been
Short
embedded
quotation
Adding
connective
Additionally, we learn that Hyde and her family, were not there alone...
3. Continue and complete this response by adding an additional 4-6 points. Remember to...
Use mostly you own words.
Include short relevant quotations.
Write about where Elisabeth Hyde has been and what she has been doing.
Interpret meaning from the words Elisabeth Hyde has used.
Question 2
•
This question will always require you to respond to Source 2 only.
•
It is worth 8 marks. You should spend 10-12 minutes answering
this question.
•
This question requires you to analyse and comment on the
presentation features mentioned in the question (usually these
will be the headline, sub-headline and images) and how they link
to the main text (the rest of the article).
•
You should aim to make 2-3 comments for each presentation
device.
•
Presentation features includes the language used in the headlines
and sub-headlines.
Look out for...
•Individual words/phrases
•Colour
•Juxtaposition
•Size
•Number of image(s)
•Detail within the image(s)
Useful phrases
The headline says “...” which suggests...
The phrase “...” in the sub-headline implies...
The size and colour of the .... in the image may make readers feel...
This links to the idea in the main text that....
Complete the tasks
on the next page...
1. Read source 2 of the insert.
2. Read the student’s response and comments to the question below.
Now read Source 2, the article and the picture which goes with it called
Fearsome Tyrannosaurus rex Sue may have died of a sore throat by Ian
Sample.
2. Explain how the headline, sub-headline and picture are effective and
Structured
how they link with the text. (8 marks)
response
Effect on
the reader
Firstly, the headline is effective as the big bold letters will immediately
draw in readers’ attention, however when they begin to read the
headline, the contrast of the words “fearsome” and “died from a sore
throat”, may intrigue the reader as the idea that such a “fearsome”
dinosaur could have been killed by something as minor as a sore throat,
may seem puzzling. Readers’ curiosity will be satisfied when they read
the whole text and learn that the T-rex’s death was caused by a
“common parasite that infects the mouth and throat” causing starvation.
Comments
on the
presentation
of the
headline.
Focuses on
individual
words
within the
headline
Links the
headline to
the main
text.
Another effective presentation feature of this article is the subheadline...
3. Continue and complete this response by adding an additional 4-6 points. Remember to...
Keep your response structured.
Focus on the effect of individual words in the sub-headline.
Make 2-3 comments on the sub-headline and 2-3 comments on the image.
Explain how the sub-headline and the image links to the main text.
Question 3
•
This question will always require you to respond to Source 3 only.
•
This text will be literary non-fiction (eg. A biography extract)
•
It is worth 8 marks. You should spend 10-12 minutes answering this question.
•
You should aim to write 4-5 PEE paragraphs.
•
You must comment on the use of language to present ideas within the text.
•
Avoid vague responses. This is when you do not explain how or why. For example:
“This makes the reader want to read on.”
Useful phrases for PEE paragraphs:
Point: One of the ways...
Evidence: The is shown by the words “...”
Explanation: This suggests... Readers may feel...
Complete the tasks
on the next page...
1. Read source 2 of the insert.
2. Read the student’s response and comments to the question below.
Inferences/ interpretations of the language
Now read Source 3, Everest The Hard Way, which is an extract from a nonfiction book.
3. Explain which parts of Pete Boardman’s story of the return to Camp 6
you find tense and exciting. (8 marks)
On of the parts the story which is particularly tense is when Pete is
waiting for his companion, Mick to arrive. Pete says that they will wait
“ten minutes more” which enables him to “shift some of the responsibility
to the watch”. This suggests that they are getting impatient of waiting
(probably for fear of their own safety) and rather than making the
decision themselves to leave Mick behind, they make time decide for
Structured them. This is a tense moment for readers as they may begin to wonder
response. where Mick is? Will he return to the camp on time and, significantly, is he
still alive?
Another tense part of the story...
Short,
relevant
quotation
to support
point
Explains how
tension is
created.
Effect on
the reader
3. Continue and complete this response by adding an additional 4-6 points. Remember to...
Keep your response structured (sequencing/adding connectives).
Use Point, Evidence and Explanation.
Interpret meaning behind the language.
Question 4
•
This question will always require you to
respond to two out of the three texts.
•
It is worth 16 marks. You should spend
20-22 minutes answering this question.
•
You must compare two texts by
analysing the effects of the writer’s use
of language.
Key Language Devices
Facts and statistics
Opinions
Emotive
Anecdote
Rhetorical questions
Personal pronouns (you/we)
Rule of three
Imagery (similes etc)
Formal/informal/slang
Technical jargon
Punctuation for effect
Sentence structure
Connectives
Similarities: Similar to... Similarly... Just like... Equally...
Differences: In contrast... However... Unlike.... On the other hand...
Complete the tasks on
the next page...
1. Read source 2 of the insert.
2. Read the student’s response and comments to the question below.
Now you need to refer to Source 3, Everest The Hard Way and either Source 1 or
Source 2.
Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts.
Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. (16 marks)
Both sources 1 and 2 immediately engage their reader's attention by starting with a
short simple sentence. In source 1, “Just two rules!” leads readers to be intrigued
to know what these rules are. The word “just” highlights the fact that there are
only two rules , when readers would expect there to be many more rules as rafting
is a dangerous activity, this implies that these two rules must be important. This is
further emphasised by the exclamation mark which highlights the importance of
these rules. The short sentence “A decision was needed” at the start of Source 3
has a similar effect of creating intrigue for the reader as they will want to know
what decision will be made and why. Again emphasis is used here, but this time, by
the word “needed” which suggests desperation.
Point made is
linked to the
question
Short,
relevant
quotation
to support
point
Effect on
the reader
Developed
analysis.
Both texts use language to create a sense of excitement about their experience...
4. Continue and complete this response by adding an additional 4-6 similarities/differences. Remember
to...
Uses
Keep your response structured (sequencing/adding connectives).
comparison
Use Point, Evidence and Explanation.
connectives to
Develop and analyse the effect of the language.
signal
Identify similarities and differences between both texts.
comparison.
Section B: Writing
You will...
•Respond to 2 Questions.
1. Short writing task (16 marks)
2. Long writing task (24 marks)
•Spend up to 1 hour and 5 minutes planning, writing and checking your
responses.
•25 minutes on the short task.
•35 minutes on the long task.
Exam Tip:
• Complete the long writing task first! If you run out of time, you will have
gained more marks on this task than the short writing task.
Explanation
Persuade & Argue
You will gain marks for your ability to engage your reader in a way that suits the purpose.
Emotive language
(Appealing to
readers’ emotions
eg. guilt)
Anecdote
(A brief account of
the writer’s personal
experience)
Facts & statistics
(True statements/
percentages etc)
Opinions
(A personal belief,
often stated as
fact)
Rule of three
Addressing readers
directly (2nd person
pronoun) (you, your)
Hyperbole
(Deliberate
exaggeration for
effect)
Superlatives
(Stating that
something is the
‘greatest’ or the
‘worst’ etc.)
Imperatives
Instructions or
demands eg.
‘stand up’ ‘go to
the...’
Alliteration
Eg. ‘Sea, surf
and sun’
Flattery
Repetition
(Words or phrases
repeated
Rhetorical
questions
Quotations
from experts
Facts & statistics
(True statements/
percentages etc)
6 Ws (who, what,
where, when, why,
how)
Opinions
(A personal belief)
Anecdote
(A brief account
of the writer’s
personal
experience)
Rhetorical
questions
Descriptions
(adjectives,
adverbs, smiles
etc).
Informal or formal? Humorous or serious?
This will depend on who you are writing for (audience).
You will gain marks for organisation and structure
Topic Sentence
(Possibly with an adding connective)
In addition... Another point is... As well as...
Evidence
•Facts
•Opinion(s)
•Examples
•Anecdote
Explanation
•Give reasons
•Describe
•Explain the
impact of your
evidence.
Supporting Evidence
(Possibly with an
illustrating connective)
Explanation
(Possibly with an
illustrating
connective)
Close
Links back to the main idea in the topic sentence.
Connectives
For example...
This is shown by...
Such as...
Connectives
This means that...
Significantly...
Therefore...
Consequently...
As a result of this...
You will gain marks for using a range of sentences and punctuation
Use all of these types of sentences
•
•
•
•
•
•
Minor sentence (1-2 words
sentence)
Complex sentence
(remember to use
comma(s))
A sentence containing a list
Compound sentence
Simple sentence
Question
‘b’
A*
A
Inverted
Commas
-
...
The Dash
Ellipsis
B
C
;
( )
:
Semicolon
Brackets
Colon
D
!
?
Exclamation Mark
Question Mark
TIP: Use an illustrating, emphasising or qualifying connective in
every full paragraph. This will help you to develop and extend
your paragraphs. (see p. 118 of your contact book)
Section B: Writing
1. Primary purpose of Writing to Explain
5. Write a brief article for a website of your choice telling your readers about an
interesting or unusual journey or travel experience you have had. Explain why
it was memorable.
(16 marks)
This main purpose of this task is to explain. However, to make
this writing lively and interesting to read, you will also need to
describe the journey (the people involved and place(s) you
visited) and possibly entertain your reader.
Practice these skills by answering the writing question above.
• Aim to write about 3 paragraphs.
•Spend no longer than 25 minutes.
•Plan before your write.
Section B: Writing
2. Primary purpose of Writing to Argue (but could be persuade)
6. Your school or College is inviting entries for a writing competition. The topic is
“Dangerous sports, activities and pastimes are selfish, often put others at risk
and should be discouraged.”
Write your entry arguing for or against this view.
(24 marks)
Practice these skills by answering the writing question above.
• Aim to write about 4-5 paragraphs.
•Spend no longer than 35 minutes.
•Plan before your write.
Spend 5 minutes...
• Checking your writing (spelling
and punctuation).
• Make any necessary changes.
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Understanding and Producing Non-Fiction Texts