Literary Elements of Julius Caesar
ACT II
William Shakespeare
Julius Caesar
Irony
Like all other figures of speech, __________ brings
about some added meanings to a situation. Ironical
statements and situations in literature develop readers’
__________. Irony makes a work of literature more
__________ and forces the readers to use their
imagination and comprehend the ____________
meanings of the texts. Moreover, real life is full of
ironical expressions and situations. Therefore, the use
of irony brings a work of literature closer to life.
Irony in Julius Caesar
Look for the following statements that are ironic in Julius
Caesar and consider how they affect the plot as it unfolds:
“If Caesar hid himself, shall they not whisper
‘Lo, Caesar is afraid’?
Pardon me, Caesar, for my dear dear love
To your proceeding bids me toll you this,
And reson to my love is liable.”
“Say I am merry; come to me again,
And bring me word what he doth say to thee.”
Motifs
The literary device ‘motif’ is any element, subject, idea
or concept that is constantly __________ through
the ________ body of literature. Using a
_________ refers to the repetition of a specific
_________ dominating the literary work. Motifs are
very noticeable and play a significant role in defining
the ________ of the story, the course of events and
the very _________ of the literary piece.
Motifs in Julius Caesar
Look for the following motifs in Act II:
 _________
 _________
 _________
Themes
Major and minor themes are two types of themes that
appear in literary works.
 A __________ theme is an idea that a writer
__________ in his work, making it the most
__________ idea in a literary work.
 A __________ theme, on the other hand, refers to
an idea that appears in a work ___________ and
gives way to another minor theme.
Theme Development in Julius Caesar
Look for the following themes in Act II:
 ____________
 ____________
 ____________
 ____________
 ____________
Symbolism
Symbolism is the use of ______________ to stand for __________ and
______________s by giving them ______________ meanings that are
different from their ______________ ones.
Symbolism can take different forms. Generally, it is an object representing
another to give it a meaning that is much ____________ and more
_____________. Sometimes, however, an action, an event, or a word
spoken may have a symbolic value.
 Example: A “smile” is a symbol of friendship. “Smiling” may stand as a
symbol of the feeling of affection which that person has for you.
Symbols shift their meanings depending on the _____________ they are
used in.
 Example: “A chain” may stand for “union” as well as “imprisonment.”
The symbolic meaning of an object or an action is understood by ________,
__________ and ___________ it is used and depends on who reads it.
Symbolism in Julius Caesar
Look for the following examples of symbolism in Act II:
“Caesar, I never stood on ceremonies,
Yet now they fright me. There is one within,
Besides the things that we have heard and seen,
Recounts most horrid sights seen by the watch.”
“She dreamt tonight she saw my statue,
Which, like a fountain with an hundred spouts,
Did run pure blood, and many lusty Romans
Came smiling and did bathe their hands in it.”
Paradox
Paradox is a statement that appears to be self_______________ or silly but may include a
hidden ___________. It is also used to illustrate an
opinion or statement contrary to __________
traditional ideas. A paradox is often used to make a
reader think over an idea in an ___________ way.
Paradox in Julius Caesar
Look for the following example paradox in Act II:
“I would have had thee there and here again
Ere I can tell this what thou shouldst do there.”
Allusion
Allusion is a ________ and _________ reference to
a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural,
literary or political significance. It does not describe in
detail the person or thing to which it refers. It is just a
passing comment and the writer expects the reader to
possess enough _________ to spot the allusion and
grasp its ___________ in a text.
Allusions in Julius Caesar
Look for the following example of allusion in Act II:
“Nor heaven nor earth have been at peace to-night:
Thrice hath Calpurnia in her sleep cried out,
‘Help, ho! they murder Caesar!’…”
Tragedy
Tragedy is kind of drama that presents a ________
subject matter about human _________ and
corresponding terrible events in a ________ manner.
Shakespeare, the most popular of all playwrights, knew
the ________ tragedy style well and he used several
Greek _________ but modified them to his own
purpose. He intentionally violates the unity of action
and mixes tragic actions with _________.
Tragedy Development in Julius Caesar
As you read Act II, consider how the conspiracy to get
rid of Caesar becomes more solidified by asking
yourself the following questions:
 ___________________________________?
 ___________________________________?
 ___________________________________?
 ___________________________________?
Anachronism
Anachronism is derived from a Greek word
___________ which means “________ ______.”
Therefore, an anachronism is an error of chronology or
timeline in a literary piece. In other words, anything
that is out of _________ and out of _________ is
an anachronism.
Anachronism in Julius Caesar
Look for anachronisms in Act II. One of the most
famous anachronisms in English occurs in this act:
 “Brutus: Peace! Count the clock.
Cassius: The clock has stricken three.”
Think about WHY Shakespeare would have included
this anachronism in this scene.
Answer: _______________________________
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Literary Elements of Julius Caesar