And the Glory of the Lord – Handel
Tonality and
Harmony
Texture
Orchestration
Melody and Word-setting
Rhythm and
Tempo
Dynamics
A major,
modulates to
E major, and
B major
twice
Changes frequently
String
orchestra
Four contrasting melodies
of the chorus:
Allegro, ¾
Terraced
dynamics
Frequent
cadences,
often perfect
Plagal
cadence at
end
Homophonic
passages: used for
dramatic effect,
usually syllabic
Polyphonic
passages: polyphony
created through use
of sequences and
imitation
Occasional, short
monophonic
passages
Continuo bass
line – organ,
cello, double
bass
Four-part
choir: SATB
‘And the glory’ – A major
triad at start, syllabic
‘Shall be revealed’ –
melismatic, smooth
descending outline
‘And all flesh’ –
melismatic, repetition for
reinforcement
‘For the mouth’ – syllabic,
tonic pedal, repeated long
notes to reinforce
meaning of words
Hemiola ends
some
sections
Adagio after
dramatic
three beats
rest near end
Long notes
make words
seem more
important
than music
Dynamics
determined by
number of
instruments
playing
Piece starts
quietly
Piece ends
loudly
Symphony No. 40 – Mozart
Tonality and
Harmony
Texture
Structure
Orchestration
Melody
Rhythm and
Tempo
Dynamics
Exposition:
1st subject in G
minor, 2nd subject
in Bb major
Mostly
homophonic
Sonata form:
Chamber orchestra
made up of strings,
woodwind and horns
Balanced, graceful melodic
lines that sound like question
and answers. E.g. 2nd subject
starts with a four-bar phrase
that ends with an imperfect
cadence (question), followed
by a four-bar phrase that ends
with a perfect cadence
(answer)
4/4 throughout
Most dynamic
contrasts occur
suddenly
Development:
explores different
keys
Recapitulation:
both subjects in G
minor
Coda: repeated
perfect cadences in
G minor
Diatonic and
functional harmony
Chromatic chords
Pedal notes (end of
1st subject and end
of bridge)
Imitation
Octave
doublings
Dialogue
between
woodwind
and strings
(start of 2nd
subject)
Exposition
Development
Recapitulation
And Coda
No trumpets or
timpani = unusual for
classical orchestra
Two horns in different
keys (G and Bb) to
maximise number of
notes they can play
between them
Strings: busy most of
time
Woodwind: don’t play
quite so much, share
start of 2nd subject
with strings
Molto Allegro
1st subject: two
quavers
followed by a
crotchet
Transition: loud
Many phrases are scalic
Contrasting melodies in 1st and
2nd subject:
First subject: a melody that is
characterised by a falling motif
first played by strings
Second subject: a melody with
descending chromatic
patterns, shared between
woodwind and strings
The 1st and 2nd subjects in the
recapitulation are repeated
with some variation
EXPOSITION
First subject:
mainly quiet
Rhythms are
fairly simple,
although some
dotted rhythms
and
syncopation
2nd subject: begins
quietly, gets louder
towards end
DEVELOPMENT:
starts and ends
quietly, loud
section in middle
RECAPITULATION:
similar dynamics to
the exposition
The Raindrop Prelude - Chopin
Tonality and
Harmony
Texture
Structure
Use of piano
Melody
Rhythm and Tempo
Dynamics
D major,
modulates to C#
minor
(enharmonic
minor)
Mainly homophonic
texture
Ternary form
with a short
codetta:
ABA
Much of
prelude uses
middle and
lower ranges
of the piano
Lyrical melody
in RH at start
4/4
Section A and B
both end with
imperfect
cadences, but the
piece ends on a
perfect cadence
Diatonic harmony
with occasional
chromaticism
Dominant pedal
(A s/G#s)
Section A: melody
in RH, broken
chords in LH
Section B: more
chordal. melody
passes to LH, with
repeated quavers in
RH
Section A: back to
opening texture.
Short monophonic
passage in the coda
Section A:
major, lively
Section B:
minor, chordal
Legato,
singing tone
produced
Sustain pedal
used
Wide dynamic
range
Sostenuto
Wide range, no
sudden
contrasts
Ornamentation
e.g.
acciaccturas,
turns
Gentle ritenuto at
end
Crescendos and
diminuendos
Raindrop notes:
G#s/Abs – repeated
quavers are a
unifying rhythmic
feature throughout
Starts p ends pp
Section B:
melody moves
to bass
Rubato = flexible
tempo for expressive
effect
Unusual rhythmic
features: septuplets,
dectuplets
Sotto voce b28
Section A:
quieter than
section B, which
climaxes to ff
twice
Peripetie – Schoenberg
Tonality and
Harmony
Texture
Structure
Orchestration
Melody and Wordsetting
Rhythm and
Tempo
Dynamics
Atonal
Largely
contrapuntal
Free rondo form
with 5 sections:
ABACA
Large orchestra
Short, fragmented
motifs
Starts in ¾, but
metre changes
between 3/4,
2/4 and 4/4
Sudden
changes of
dynamics,
leading to
extreme
contrasts
between ppp
and fff
Dissonant
harmony
Hexachords
Occasional
monophonic and
homophonic
moments
Complex textures
built up through
use of imitation
and inversion
Instrumentation
changes rapidly
Instruments
required to play at
extremes of pitch
ranges
Unusual effects
e.g. cymbals
played with both a
cello bow and a
mallet
Disjunct
Octave displacement
Sehr rasch
(very quick)
Inversion
Rhythms:
complex and
varied
Rhythmic
augmentation
Starts loudly,
ends with pp
chord
Something’s Coming – Bernstein
Tonality and
Harmony
Texture
Structure
Orchestration
Melody and Word-setting
Rhythm and Tempo
Dynamics
D major, with two
contrasting
sections in C major
Homophonic
Does not follow
conventional
verse-chorus
structure
Solo tenor
accompanied by a
band made up of
woodwind, brass,
percussion and
strings
Mostly syllabic
Fast tempo
Starts pp
Alternation of three main
themes:
1 – quiet syncopated opening
theme
2 – loud, strident theme in 2/4
(b21)
3 – lyrical, slow-moving theme
Frequent
syncopation, push
rhythms
Much contrast
A: mostly syllabic, often scalic
Accompaniment:
largely made up of
an on-beat bass part
with off-beat chords
= create cross
rhythms at star
Tonal and Jazz
influenced
harmony with
blues notes e.g.
tritone and
flattened 7ths (e.g.
C natural against D
major harmonies
at end) – note
remains
unresolved and
fits in well with the
sense of
expectation
Accompaniment:
uses quiet
dynamics, soft
timbre (e.g.
muted trumpets,
pizz strings) =
don’t overpower
the singer
B: made up of repeated notes
C: made up of wider intervals
Word-setting:
‘the air is humming’ – long
notes, strings use harmonics
and play tremolo
‘they may come
cannonballing…’ – repetition,
recitative style
Metre changes
between 3/4 and
2/4
B: melody
louder
Many
crescendos and
diminuendos
Fades out at
end
Electric Counterpoint – Steve Reich
Tonality and
Harmony
Texture
Structure
Instruments
Melody
Technology
Rhythm and Tempo
Dynamics
Tonality: rather
ambiguous to start
with, but when
bass guitar enters
playing octave Es,
E minor is clearly
established
Contrapuntal
A, B, Coda
10 guitars in
total:
1 live guitar,
7 prerecorded
parts,
2 bass
guitars
Made up of a
one-bar motif
repeated
continuously to
form an ostinato
Multi-track
recording
Crotchet = 192 (very
fast)
Starts mf
and ends ff
Panning: bass 1
panned fully one
way, bass 2 the
other
Rhythmical
displacement
Fairly
constant
throughout
Frequent changes
in section B
between E minor
and C minor –
these modulations
are not closely
related, so sound
unnatural
Diatonic and nonfunctional
harmony
No conventional
harmonic
progressions
Starts
monophonically
with guitar 1, then
live guitar enters
Quickly becomes
contrapuntal by
bar 2
Gradually builds up
layers to 10 guitars
Gradually reduced
to 5 part texture at
start of coda
Reich builds up
melody using
note addition
Syncopated
quaver motif
introduced by live
guitar and top 4
guitar parts
New syncopated
quaver motif
introduced in
bass guitar
More sustained
motif begins in
live guitar then
transferred to
others
Reverb: can be
heard on
acoustic guitars
Frequent syncopation
Very little rhythmical
variety – mainly
repeating patterns of
quavers
Section A: all 3/2
Section B: changes
between 3/2 and 6/8
Polymetre later: 3/2
and 12/8 at the same
time
Some parts
fade out
All Blues – Miles Davis
Tonality and Harmony
Texture and
Dynamics
G major with flattened 7th = Mixolydian mode
Homophonic
texture
Modal jazz
Extended and altered chords e.g. E# added to
D7 chord so it becomes D7#9
Based on 12-bar blues sequence:
1
2
3
4
5
6
G7
G7
G7
G7
Gm7
Gm7
7
8
9
10
11
12
G7
G7
D7#9
E 7#9
D7#9
F G
F G
Frequent use
of crescendos
and
diminuendos
Structure
Instruments and
Techniques
Melody
Rhythm and
Tempo
Intro: played by
the rhythm
section, followed
by the riff (simple
4 bar riff in
parallel 3rds that
separates each
section)
Frontline instruments:
trumpet, alto sax,
tenor sax
Head Melody:
simple, followed by 4
improvised solos:
6/4
Jazz waltz
Rhythm section: piano,
bass, drums
Trumpet solo: made
up of short,
syncopated motifs
Performed
with swung
quavers
Alto sax solo: quicker
notes, wider range,
more virtuosic
Frequent
syncopation
Head 1+2: head
melody, followed
by riff, played
twice
Solos: for
trumpet, alto sax,
tenor sax and
piano, each
followed by the
riff
Head 3+4: head
melody, followed
by riff, played
twice
Coda: solo for
muted trumpet
Main melody - muted
trumpet (Harmon
mute)
Snare drum played
with wire brushes at
start and switches to
sticks later on
Bass plays pizzicato
throughout
Piano plays tremolo at
start, but when solos
begin, piano starts
comping
Ghost notes on snare
drum and trumpet
Tenor sax: fast
scales, very virtuosic
Piano solo: calmer,
simple melody
Grace – Jeff Buckley
Tonality and
Harmony
Texture
Structure
Instrumentation
Technology
Melody and Word-setting
Rhythm and
Tempo
Ambiguity until bar
4 when D major is
established, but
verse 1 – piece
then settles into E
minor
Verse 1:
homophonic
Song follows
this versechorus form:
Buckley is
accompanied by
two electric guitars,
bass guitar, acoustic
guitar, synthesiser,
strings and drum kit
Modulation on
synthesiser at start
Vocal part – has an
improvised quality and a very
wide range (over two
octaves)
12/8
Unusual harmony
for rock song –
chords I, IV, V are
avoided
Instead, many of
the chords are
chromatic and
move in parallel
motion (by
semitone steps,
e.g. F-Em-E in
chorus)
Some very
dissonant
harmonies e.g. in
chorus
No conventional
cadences in E
minor
Verse 2: more
complex
Middle 8: multitracked vocals
Strings and
synthesiser used
to vary texture
Texture thickens
towards end of
song, especially
in the outro and
on the words
‘drown my
name’
Intro, v1, prechorus, chorus,
link, v2, prechorus, chorus,
middle 8, verse
3, outro.
Intro is used as
a link
Drums and guitars accompany
throughout most of
song
Strings and
synthesiser – less
prominent, used to
vary texture
Guitar part: printed
in tab
Guitars use drop D
tuning
Distortion and flanging
on guitars – intensify
sound in coda
Overdubbing – creates
thicker sound
EQ – in final verse, to
remove lower
frequencies in
Buckley’s voice
Delay in vocal track
Multi-track in middle 8
vocals
Most of vocal phrases are
falling, to reflect melancholy
mood of song, and uses grace
notes and glissandos
Frequent ornamentation in
melody line, with glissandos
Most of word setting is
syllabic, although there are
some melismas to emphasise
certain words: e.g. ‘love’ in
v1, ‘fire’ in chorus
Bridge – passage of
vocalisation; Buckley uses
falsetto
Word painting: v1 - ‘cries’ set
to falling 5th, sounds like
crying
Chorus – ‘drown my name’
very thick texture build up
64 beats per
minute
Bass drum:
plays on beats
1&3
Snare drum:
accents beats
2&4
(backbeats)
Vocal part uses
triplets and
frequent
syncopation
Cross rhythms
created
through use of
two-againstthree rhythms
Guitar uses
semiquaver
patterns at
start
Why does my heart feel so bad? – Moby
Am
Tonality and Harmony
Texture
Structure
Instruments and
Technology
Melody
Rhythm and
Tempo
Verses: A minor
Piano, synthesisers,
drum machine, synth
pads, string pads
Two vocal
samples from
gospel choir in
1953
3 chord sequences Verse:
Texture builds up
during verse
Intro, verse,
chorus,
verse,
breakdown,
chorus,
outro
4/4
Choruses: C major
Start –
homophonic
(solo piano)
Samples are
looped to
create verses
and choruses
Reverb and delay:
the effects of these
can be heard in
breakdown
Am
Em
Em
G
G
D
C
Am
D
Texture thins out
in second chorus
Chorus:
C
C
Am
Am
C
Am
Fuller texture
returns
Loops: vocal samples
are looped
Samples have
not been
‘cleaned up’ –
echoes and
background
noises can still
be heard
EQ
F
F
C
C
F
F
C
C
Harmonies are diatonic
Sus2and sus4 chords used by piano when
playing syncopated chords at end of V1
Outro thins out
again with just
solo voice and
synthesiser
Filtering
Technology
considered oldfashioned for 1999,
but preferred by
Moby
Verse vocal
sample ‘why
does my heart’
: male
Chorus vocal
sample: ‘these
open doors’ :
female
Steady
tempo: 98
bpm
Syncopation
used by
piano, vocal
and synth
string parts
Rhythms
varied for
contrast
Skye Waulking Song – Capercaillie
Tonality and
Harmony
Texture
Structure
Beginning hints at E
minor, but settles
into G major at V1
Cluster chords at
beginning
Intro, v1,
break, v2-6,
instrumental,
v7 + 8, outro
Diatonic harmony
Harmony less
important than
melody, so only four
chords used:
C, G, Em, Am9
Dominant chord (D)
is avoided, allowing
a modal feel
Becomes
contrapuntal
Short monophonic
section for voice
Heterophonic:
when accordion,
pipes and fiddle
improvise around
melody at same
time in slightly
different ways
Vocal line
alternates
between 4
different
phrases in a
call and
response
pattern
Instrumentation and
Musical Techniques
Modulation on synthesiser
and cluster chords open the
song
Followed by tremolo on
fiddle – uneasy feel
Melody
Rhythm and Tempo
Sung in Gaelic, an
octave lower than
written
12/8, gives lilting
feel to piece
Melody is
pentatonic
Mainly syllabic
Frequent
syncopation in vocal
line and
instrumental
countermelodies
Celtic fusion –
Folk:
vocals, fiddle, bouzouki,
accordion, uilleann pipes
Western:
drums, bass guitar,
synthesiser, Wurlitzer piano
Call and response:
Lines 1 & 3:
vocables
Lines 2 & 4: Gaelic
verse
Start of song, hi-hat
pattern creates
cross-rhythms. Full
band enters, hi-hat
rhythm changes and
more clearly
emphasises 12/8
Structure of a raga:
Rag Desh
ALAP
JHOR
JHALLA
GAT/BANDISH
Instruments
Anouskha
Shankar
(2001)
Sitar (plucked)
Tabla
Structure
Alap
Gat 1
Gat 2
Texture
Alap:
unaccompanied
sitar
Gat 1: sitar and
tabla
Chiranji Lal
Tanwar –
Mhara
Janam
Maran (2004)
Voice
Sarangi (bowed)
Sarod (plucked)
Pakhawaj
Percussion
Cymbals
instruments
Tabla
Alap
Bandish
Bhajan
(devotional
song)
Alap: short intro on
sarangi. Continues
with some
improvisation by
singer
Rhythm
Rag:
C D F G B C Bb A G F E D C
Melody
Dynamics
Alap: slow, no metre
Based on notes of Rag Desh
Alap: quiet
Gat 1: tabla enters with JHAPTAL
(10 beats: 2+3+2 +3) Medium
speed. Sitar uses chand (triplets)
Ends with tihai
Alap: sitar uses meend (pitch
bend)
Gat 1: gets louder
Gat 1: sitar plays fixed
composition, uses meend and tan
Gat 2: faster than Gat 1, tabla
uses TEENTAL (16 beats:
4+4+4+4)
Ends with tihai
Gat 2: sitar uses drone strings,
strumming
Alap: voice vocalizes in free time
Based on notes of Rag Desh
Bandish: tabla joins in with
KEHERWA TAL (8 beats: 2+2+2+2)
Music becomes fast and exciting
Melody is ornamented with much
melisma and meend
Gat 2: crescendos to
end
The rag begins very
quietly
Mostly conjunct
Crescendo as
instruments and
vocals enter
Alap: intro on sarangi, sarod
enters, then voice vocalizing in
free time based on rag
Dynamics increase
when tabla and other
percussion enter
Bandish: fixed composition, solos
on sarod and sarangi
Dynamics stay at
similar level
throughout
Alap: slow
Based on notes of Rag Desh
Gat 1: slow tempo, tabla enters
with RUPAK TAL (7 beat: 3+2+2)
Ends with tihai
Alap: drone on shruti box, bansuri
enters
Quiet to start in alap,
then gentle swells
from shruti box
copied by bansuri and
then esraj. Generally,
pretty much the same
volume.
Gat 1 and Gat 2
louder due to entry of
tabla, but generally
same volume after
Piece ends with a short tihai
Benjy
Wertheimer
and Steve
Gorn (2004)
Bansuri (Steve Gorn)
Esraj (bowed)
Shruti box (same role as
tambura) electronic
Tabla
Swarmandel
Alap
Gat 1
Gat 2
Alap: slow, drone
on shruti box,
bansuri enters, esraj
takes over
Gat 1:
unaccompanied
bansuri, tabla
enters
Gat 2: fast tempo, tabla uses
EKTAL TAL (12 beat:
2+2+2+2+2+2) some syncopation
Gat 2: tabla solo
Piece ends with 3 tihais
Gat 1: unaccompanied bansuri,
becomes more agitated and
dramatic with improvisations
Gat 2: tabla solo, improvisation
becomes more elaborate, bansuri
Significance of drums:
-accompaniment for singing,
dancing, working
-means of communication
Yiri – Koko
Dancing to African Music:
-strong beat -same tempo -unvaried dynamics
-repetitive
Tonality
and
Harmony
G major
(although
not
originally
notated)
Much use
of tonic
(G ) and
dominant
(D ) =
strong
sense of
key
Balafons
often play
in octaves
and use
pedal
notes of
G
Structure
Three
sections:
Intro:
balafon solo
Texture
Typical features of West African music:
-repetition
-improvisation
-call and response
-layered textures
Instruments
Melody
Rhythm and Tempo
Dynamics
High balafon
Hexatonic /Pentatonic?
Free tempo at start
Balafon solo at start uses tremolo
Rest of piece: steady
pulse
Largely the
same
throughout
Intro: monophonic
(high balafon solo)
Low balafon
Layered texture
Main
section:
music
alternates
between
balafon solos
and chrouses
Occasional
heterophonic texture,
created when two
balafons play different
versions of same tune
at same time (balafons
usually in octaves)
Coda
Polyphonic: rest of
piece until coda
Talking drums
Call and response between solo
and chorus; and between chorus
and balafons
Djembe
Short repetitive motifs – so people
can join in
Vocals – soloist &
chorus
Music alternates berween balafon
solos and choruses
Balafon has solo breaks in between
choruses, which are more virtuosic
Bell (at end)
Coda: heterophonic
Coda: short phrase for balafon
played 5 times in slightly varied
versions
Bell at the end to signify the end
4/4
Drums play a rhythmic
ostinato which last
throughout the piece
(quaver + two
semiquavers)
Syncopated melodies
throughout, especially
in vocal and balafon
parts
Triplets used by solo
voice and high balafon
part, which creates
cross rhythms
Drum ostinato at end
is interrupted by rests
Little
variation –
makes
piece easy
to dance to
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