Visible “Tells”
 Scaling
estimates wood volume
after defects that result in loss of
wood are removed
 Grading
removes defects that
could result in lower wood quality
– clear cuttings
 The
volume of a product before defect is
removed (sound wood plus unsound
wood) is called gross volume.
 The
remaining volume after defect has
been removed (sound wood only) is
called net volume.
1.
Estimate gross volume
2.
Estimate cull deduction and subtract
from Gross volume to get Net volume
3.
Estimate grade of net volume wood
Veneer
Factory
Use (can cut into clear
pieces, i.e for furniture)
Construction Use
Local Use (pallets, posts, etc.)
Chips
 Bulge
 Bumps
 Burls
 Butt Scar
 Butt Swell
 Cankers
 Galls
 Lesions
 Conks
 Epicormic
 Flanges
 Flutes
Branches
 Forks
 Gum Lesions
 Holes
 Knots
 Limbs
 Overgrowths
 Seams
 Splits
 Surface Rise
 Wounds
 Timber
Cruising Handbook, Ch. 20, pg.
57
 Defects
in Hardwood Timber Handbook
good reference
2.5 inches
Bird peck
(4+ callused)
 Residual
from branch
Concentric circles
Overgrowths heavy (YP)
Medium
Light
 Light
distortion – has normal bark
patterning breaking through entirety of
concentric rings
 Medium
– normal patterning has invaded
but not gone through concentric rings
 Heavy
– concentric rings has totally
interupted normal bark pattern
heavy
 Starting
with a 1’ stump
 Examine
 Allow
 So
the 16’ log above the stump
.3’ for trim (4” – 2” on each end)
you are looking at the tree from 1-17.3’
The
grading
face is the
third best
face or the
second
worst face
Example of an F2 grade butt-log.
Stoppers are occurrences in the tree that
can not be productively sawn through
and limit the length of a potential log
section.
• Forks that are at least 1/3 diameter of main bole at
point of occurrence and 45 degrees or less in angle
from the main bole.
• Branches, stubs, remnant bumps. – ½ diameter of
mainstem.
• Any embedded metal excluding aluminum.
• Sudden dramatic change in bole diameter
Rot
Catface or fire
scar (missing
wood)
Sweep
Crook
Interior
damage
Within slab area =
no deduction
i.e. Sapsucker
Damage for
construction
grade logs, etc.
 Extend
the length
affected an additional
2 feet above the last
visible indicator.
 Pie
cut fractions are
used to determine
deductions. Fractions
used as 1/8, 1/4, 1/3,
1/2, etc.
USE STANDARD PIE CUT
FRACTIONS SUCH AS 1/8, 1/4,
1/2 FOR CULL DEDUCTIONS
WATCH FOR SPIRAL DAMAGE
 Different
types of
conks indicate
different fungal
infections. Some
penetrate deeper
than others which
effects defect
deduction. Must
familiarize yourself
with those in your
area.
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Tree Defects & Quality