Assessing and Mitigating
Disproportionate Impact in
Matriculation Services
A guide to help examine and
monitor equitable access and
success
Presenters
Rogeair D. Purnell
Bri C. Hays
To start…
By a show of hands, how many of you would
say that your knowledge about and familiarity
with disproportionate impact can be described
as follows:
A. I know everything there is to know
B. I know just enough to get in trouble
C. I know barely anything at all
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Session Objectives
• Define disproportionate impact
• Outline how to access and analyze available
data
• Highlight promising mitigation strategies
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ENSURING STUDENT EQUITY
Why the focus on
disproportionate impact?
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Advancing student success
•
Student Success Taskforce
•
•
Student Success Act of 2012
•
•
Focus on Strengthening Support for Entering
Students
“Refocus” core matriculation services so that
more students are receiving these services
while requiring colleges to use common
assessments and an accountability scorecard
Student Support (Re)defined
•
6 support success factors
5
DEFINING THE TERM
What is disproportionate
impact?
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Definition (CA Ed code 55502 (d), Title 5)
Disproportionate impact occurs when the
percentage of persons from a particular racial,
ethnic, gender, age or disability group directed to
a particular service or placement based on an
assessment instrument, method, or procedure at
a rate that is significantly different from the
representation of that group in the population of
persons being assessed, and discrepancy is not
justified by empirical evidence demonstrating
that the assessment instrument, method or
procedure is a valid and reliable predictor of
performance in the relevant educational setting
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In Simpler Terms…
Condition where some students’ access to
key resources and supports and ultimately
their academic success may be
hampered by inequitable practices,
policies and approaches to student
support
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C A L C U L AT I N G T H E M A G I C R AT I O
How can I determine
whether disproportionate
impact is a concern?
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Assessing for
Disproportionate Impact
Sample Research Questions:
•
•
•
•
Do male and female students access
counseling services in different proportions
relative to their representation on the campus?
Are younger students more likely to complete
an orientation course?
If a student is older (26 years or older), is s/he
more likely to assess into basic skills level
math?
Is race/ethnicity associated with lower success
rates in prerequisites in certain fields of study?
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The 80 Percent Rule
The benchmark for the ratio of selection or
participation rates between a minority
group and the reference (majority) group
Disproportionate Impact (<80%) =
the access (or placement or success) rate
for the given group
÷
the rate of the reference group
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RESOURCES TO HELP EXPLORE & MONITOR
What if I need help to
assess disproportionate
impact as it relates to
matriculation services?
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Guide’s Focus
Matriculation Services:
designed “to increase community college
student access and success”
 Admissions
 Assessment and Placement
 Orientation
 Counseling and Advising (education planning)
 Follow-up (evaluation of student progress)
 Prerequisites
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Guiding Questions
● Where is disproportionate impact an issue?
● What strategies and approaches have
colleges successfully implemented to mitigate
it?
● What data can be accessed to explore the
issue?
● What relevant analyses can be conducted to
monitor changes in disproportionate impact?
● How can colleges use this information for
action planning and improvement?
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Guide Outline
• Context
• Available data
• Relevant analyses
• Guidelines for data analysis (80% rule)
• Sample data tables
• Highlighted areas for analysis
• Additional research questions
• Promising strategies and approaches
• Action planning for improvement
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Context: Matriculation Service
Access and Outcomes
Service
When could DI be an issue?
Admissions
Late registration
Assessment
Placement decisions
Orientation
Session attendance
Course enrollment / completion
Counseling & Advising
Completion of ed plan
Access to counseling
Follow-up
Early alert warning
Academic probation
Prerequisites
Restricted access to courses w/ prereqs
Retention and persistence in field of study
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Available Data
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Relevant Analyses: 80% Rule
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Calculation: Steps 1 and 2
Disaggregate the target population of
students by gender, age, and ethnicity and
calculate percentages for each group (e.g.,
50% female, 50% male)
2. Calculate the percentage of students within
each group that received a particular service,
placed into a course or level, or met the
prerequisite skill level for a course
1.
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Calculation: Steps 3 to 5
Identify the majority or reference group and
use that group’s percentage as the
benchmark
4. To obtain the ratio, divide the percentages
for each other student group (minority group)
by that of the majority or reference group
5. Highlight any group with a ratio of less than
0.80 or 80% = disproportionate impact
3.
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Example: The 80 Percent Rule
1. The majority ethnic group is White students
2. 60% of White students accessed the service
3. 60% would serve as the reference rate
4. Divide minority group’s rate by 60% (reference
rate)
5. So, if 50% of Hispanic/Latino students accessed
the service, divide 50 by 60 to obtain the ratio for
Hispanic/Latino students (50 ÷ 60 = 83%).
Since the ratio for Hispanic/Latino students is
greater than 80%, there is no evidence of
disproportionate impact for this group
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Sample Data Table: Orientation
Ethnicity
Fall 2010 First-Time
Students
Received Orientation
Services
Ratio
African American
240
8%
120
50%
83%
American Indian/
Alaskan Native
30
1%
12
40%
67%
Asian
300
10%
144
48%
80%
Filipino
120
4%
50
42%
70%
Latino
930
31%
465
50%
83%
Multi-Ethnicity
180
6%
104
58%
97%
Pacific Islander
30
1%
15
50%
83%
Other, non-white
120
4%
72
60%
100%
White
1,050
35%
630
60%
100%
Total/Overall
3,000
100%
1,612
54%
--
Shaded group represents the reference group
Bolded rows identify groups for which disproportionate impact has occurred
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Promising Strategies &
Approaches
Service
Strategies & Approaches
Admissions
No late registration
Assessment
High school transcript data
Orientation
Student success courses
Counseling &
Advising
Online degree audit
Follow-up
Mandatory counseling / success
course
Prerequisites
Accelerated pathways
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Action Planning: Questions for
Consideration
• How are you monitoring disproportionate impact?
• What other factors may have contributed to the
•
•
•
•
findings?
Who is or needs to be involved in this effort?
How often should available data be examined to
note progress or a need for additional changes?
Which groups of students are likely to be affected
and/or targeted?
What kind of training or professional development
is needed?
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Q&A
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For more information
Check the RP Group website for updates!
www.rpgroup.org
Rogeair D. Purnell
RP Group, Senior Researcher
[email protected]
Bri C. Hays
SD Mesa College, Campus Researcher
[email protected]
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Thank You!
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Assessing and Mitigating Disproportionate Impact in