Arizona’s First University.
Impact of the College of Agriculture
and Life Sciences Ambassador
Program
Kodi D. Havins
AED 615 Investigations and Studies in Applied Research
Fall 2006
CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Personal Background
•Yuma, Arizona
•B.S., Animal Sciences
•Former CALS Ambassador
•Current CALS Ambassador Co-Advisor
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
CHAPTER ONE
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Introduction
•Morrill Act of 1862
•President Abraham Lincoln
•Provided public land to every state that remained in the
union
•States were to sell the land and use profits to establish
colleges in agriculture, engineering, and military sciences
•“Land Grant” Colleges
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Introduction
•University of Arizona
•Found 1885
•Established the College of Agriculture in 1889
•Now called the College of Agriculture and Life
Sciences
•1915 formally organized to include Resident Instruction,
Experiment Station, and Cooperative Extension
•Resident Instruction is now known as Academic Programs
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Introduction
•CALS Ambassadors
•The idea was to increase student recruitment
mechanisms towards potential CALS Students and to
represent CALS and UA at agriculture and life science
industry events and academia functions
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Introduction
•CALS Ambassadors
•Founded in 1992 by Dr. John “Jack” Elliot
•Designed after the University of Florida’s Program
•Supported by Office of Academic Programs
•Ambassadors are selected through a 3 Step Process
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Need
As with any ongoing college supported program, the general
program should eventually be evaluated and suggested
changes should be addressed. Most importantly, given the
dedication and time students donate to the CALS
Ambassador program, the impact this program has on their
post college lives should be assessed. To date, there have
been no efforts made to evaluate the influences the CALS
Ambassador program has had on students, who have been
apart of the program. There have been a total of 151 CALS
Ambassadors. However, only 145 Ambassadors have
graduated as recognized CALS Ambassadors.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Purpose
The purpose of this survey study will be to test the theory that
serving as a University of Arizona College of Agriculture and
Life Science Ambassadors has a positive impact on student’s
post-college lives. The independent variable of interest, being
a CALS Ambassador, will be defined generally as an
undergraduate student, who has been select, through a
formal application and interview process, to represent CALS
and UA, as a CALS Ambassador. The dependent variables
will be defined generally as post-college lives, and may
include life choices, job satisfaction, salary income,
geographical location, and continuing education decisions.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Objectives
1. To develop a demographic profile of former CALS
Ambassadors.
2. To describe the experiences associated with being a CALS
Ambassador.
3. To measure the participation in the National Agriculture
Ambassador Conference.
4. To determine the overall value of the CALS Ambassador
Program as perceived by CALS Ambassadors.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Limitations
• Due to the various backgrounds of CALS
Ambassadors, prior knowledge and
experiences may have an effect on the
experience they had while being a CALS
Ambassador.
• The study was also limited to the different
stages the former CALS Ambassadors were
in of their lives. Some CALS Ambassadors
may have different views and attitudes
towards their experiences later on in life, than
they did during the time the survey was
conducted.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Assumptions
1. The CALS Ambassador program was
executed as prescribed.
2. Program participants performed at least the
basic required duties of a CALS Ambassador.
3. Participation in a National Agriculture
Ambassador Conference is related to the
general experiences and not the quality of the
conference attended.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Delimitations
• Results can only be generalized to
participants of the CALS Ambassador
Program, at the University of Arizona.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Definitions of Terms
• College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
(CALS)
• CALS Ambassador Program
• National Agriculture Ambassador Conference
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
CHAPTER TWO
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Literature Review
• Need for Student Organizations and Clubs
- “Vocational agriculture teachers can be
distinguished from those who are not
members by a set of discrimination variables
describing degree of professionalism, selfperceived importance of organizational role
and member benefits, and teacher
characteristics”
- (Lawver & Lee, 1990)
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Literature Review
• Need for Student Organizations and Clubs
-Participation in student activities at the
college level, as well as high school level,
definitely related to overall leadership
development
- (Brikenbolz & Schumcer, n.d.)
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Literature Review
• Need for Student Organizations and Clubs
- “Communication skills of College of
Agriculture students are enhanced through
participation in student organizations and
activities”
- (McKinley, Birkenholz, & Stewart, 1993)
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Literature Review
• Need for Student Organizations and Clubs
- The findings of these studies provide
confirmation that participating in student
activities and organizations increase
leadership and communications skills, which
are crucial for future employment.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Literature Review
• Demographics of College Students
- Porter suggests that career opportunities
and achievements are in direct correlation
with one’s academic major
- Porter’s study concludes that
interdisciplinary and social science majors are
more likely to be female’s choice in majors
over males.
-(Porter, S.R. & Umbach, P.D., 2006)
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Literature Review
• Program Effectiveness
-Participants of the California Agricultural
Leadership Program (CALP) concluded that
the program had “directly impacted their
personal, career and leadership development
and growth in positive and dynamic ways”.
-(Whent, L.S. & Leising, J.G., 1992)
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Literature Review
• Leadership
-Study conducted by Brannon, Holley, and
Key reported that in their survey of community
leaders, those who had participated in
vocational agriculture programs as a youth,
believed that the leadership programs they
were involved in contributed to leadership
skills.
-(Brannon, Holley, Key, 1989)
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Literature Review
• Leadership
-Study conducted by Brannon, Holley, and
Key reported that in their survey of community
leaders, those who had participated in
vocational agriculture programs as a youth,
believed that the leadership programs they
were involved in contributed to leadership
skills.
-(Brannon, Holley, Key, 1989)
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Research Importance
•Given the dedication and time students donate to the
CALS Ambassador program, the impact this program
has on their post college lives should be assessed.
• CALS contributes significant support to the
Ambassador program.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Contribution to Agriculture Education
•The Department of Agricultural Education has always
been a major supporter of the CALS Ambassador
Program and the value should be assessed.
•The known value of the program may have an affect on
Agricultural Education student’s involvement in the CALS
Ambassador Program.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
CHAPTER THREE
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Census
•Census study of all participants who have served as
University of Arizona (UA) College of Agriculture and Life
Sciences (CALS) Ambassadors and graduated as
recognized ambassadors from the beginning of the
program in 1992 through 2006 (N=145).
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Instrument Design
•The survey instrument was developed according
to the research objectives created after the review
of literature and with consideration of Fraenkel and
Wallen (2006) recommendations for creating a
written survey.
•Likert type scales, descriptive questions, and
open ended questions assessed the questions for
each of the four objectives.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Description of Procedures
•With reference to Fraenkel and Wallen (2006)
recommendations, the study participants were
sent a cover letter, disclaimer form, and a survey.
•They were given written instruction on how to
complete the survey on the internet if they wish to
do so, in the cover letter.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Description of Procedures
•Each person was randomly assigned a five digit code, indicated
on their cover letter. The subject where asked identify the five
digit code on the survey. Once the survey was completed and
returned, the five digit code was marked off of the initial list.
•Non-respondence where sent another cover letter, disclaimer
form, and survey, with the same directions as the first mailing,
two weeks after the initial mailing.
•After an additional two weeks, the same procedure towards
non-respondence was followed. Participants were able to
partake in the study at their convenience.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
Reliability & Validity
•The face, content and construct validity was determined by a
panel of experts from the University of College of Agriculture
and Life Sciences. To further establish content and construct
validity, a field test was administered to selected experts in the
subject areas to further establish content.
•Since there are no other ambassador programs parallel to the
CALS Ambassador Program reliability was determined Post
Hoc.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
References
Birkenbolz, R.J, & Schumacher, L.G. (n.d.). Leadership skills of college of agriculture
graduates. Journal of Agricultural Education. 35(4), 1-8.
Brannon, T., Holley, C. W., Key, J.P. (1989). Impact of vocational agriculture/FFA on
community leadership. Journal of Agricultural Education. 30(30), 37-42.
Chee, K.H., Pino, N.W., & Smith, W.L. (2005). Gender differences in the academic
ethic and academic achievement. College Student Journal. 39(3), 604.
College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, University of Arizona. (2002). Information for
news media. Retrieved September 16, 2006, from
http://www.ag.arizona.edu/media/
College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, University of Arizona. (n.d.). The
Ambassadors. Retrieved October 26, 2006, from
http://cals.arizona.edu/oap/ambassadors/index.htm
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
References
Fraenkel, J.R. & Wallen, N.E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in
education (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lawver, D.E. & Lee, J.S. (1990). Comparison of members and non-members of
professional organizations for vocational agriculture teachers. Journal of
Agricultural Education. 31(4), 39-45.
McKinley, B.G., Birkenholz, R.J., & Stewart, B.R. (1993). Characteristics and
experiences related to the leadership skills of agriculture students in college.
Journal of Agricultural Education. 34(3), 76-83.
Porter, S.R. & Umback, P.D. (2006). College major choice: an analysis of personenvironment fit. Research in Higher Education. 47(4), 429-449.
Schumacher, L.G. & Swan M.K. (1993). Need for formal leadership training for
students in a Land-Grant college of agriculture. Journal of Agricultural
Education. 34(3), 1-9.
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CALS AMBASSADOR PROGRAM
References
Talbert, B.A., Vaughn, R., and Croom, D.B. (2005). Foundations of Agricultural
Education. Catlin, Illinois: Professional Educators Publications, Inc.
The University of Arizona. (2005a). Fact book 2005-06. Tucson, AZ: University of
Arizona Office of Institutional Research & Evaluation.
United States Department of State, Office of International Information Programs.(n.d.).
Backgrounder on the Morrill Act. Retrieved September 16, 2006, from
http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/27.htm
Whent, L.S. & Leising, J.G. (1992). A twenty-year evaluation of the California
agricultural leadership program. Journal of Agricultural Education. 33(3), 3239.
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Thank you!!!
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Impact of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Ambassador