THE MCKINNEY-VENTO LAW:
Giving Homeless Students a
Shot at the American Dream
The Texas Homeless Education Office
http://www.utdanacenter.org/theo/
U.T. Dana Center & Region 10 ESC
1616 Guadalupe
Austin, TX 78701
800-446-3142
1
OUR AGENDA TODAY
• Background of the McKinney-Vento Law: the
Federal NCLB law and the state Texas
Education Code
• Defining Homelessness
• School Personnel Responsibilities: local
liaison and school administrators
• School of Origin, Transportation Issues,
Dispute Resolution
2
FINDING ANSWERS
• CALL THE TEXAS HOMELESS EDUCATION
OFFICE:
 1-800-446-3142
 1-512-475-9715 VICKY DILL
• EMAIL [email protected]
• TEA information at
http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index4.aspx?id=21
47503685
3
Poverty in Texas
• Low Wages and Rising Rents
• Scarce Supportive Housing
• Families without Health Care
4
Students Coded Homeless 2012
• 2010-2011
85,155
• 2011-2012
94,624
• 2012-2013
100,635-102,579
5
Why Are So Many Homeless?
• While it's true that Texas is responsible
for 40% of the jobs added in the U.S.
over the past two years, its poverty rate
also grew faster than the national
average in 2010.
6
Why Are Children Homeless?
• Some 18.4% of Texans were
impoverished in 2010, up from 17.3% a
year earlier, according to Census Bureau
data released in 2012.
• The national average is 15.1%.
• Texas leads the nation in the number of
people who have no health insurance.
7
Texas: 6th Poorest State in Nation
• Texas has the 6th highest poverty rate
in the nation; one in every 6 Texans or
4.4 million Texans live in poverty.
• While the unemployment rate is low,
many Texans need two or three lowpaying jobs to make ends meet.
8
Texas: High Poverty, Poor Health Care
• In the United States, about 1.5 million
children in grades K-12 are homeless;
• In Texas alone, no fewer than 103,000
students are homeless. Under-identification
is widespread;
• Child poverty in Texas increases every year:
26.2 percent of Texas children are currently
living in poverty.
• To give you a better idea, that's more than
one-in four children.
9
Texas: High Poverty, Poor Health Care
• In the United States, about 1.5 million
children in grades K-12 are homeless;
• Child poverty in Texas increases every year:
26.2 percent of Texas children are currently
living in poverty.
• To give you a better idea, that's more than
one-in four children.
10
Decline of the Middle Class
In 2008, there were an estimated 13.9
million households comprised of two or
more families. By 2010, the number of
multifamily households increased to 15.5
million, accounting for 13.2 percent of all
households.
The Effects of Recession on Household Composition: “Doubling Up” and
Economic Well-Being. Laryssa Mykyta and Suzanne Macartney, U.S.
Census Bureau SEHSD Working Paper Number 2011-4 (2011).
11
BACKGROUND
Background of the McKinney-Vento Law:
the Federal NCLB law and the State of
Texas Education Code
12
WHAT IS MCKINNEY-VENTO?
This law is a result of bipartisan legislation in
the 1980’s. After the death of its chief
Republican sponsor, Representative Stewart
B. McKinney of Connecticut, the act was
renamed the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless
Assistance Act. President Ronald Reagan
signed it into law on July 22, 1987. At the time
it was enacted, 50% of all homeless students
dropped out of school.
13
Is This a New Law?
On October 30, 2000, President William
Clinton renamed the legislation, “The
McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance
Act” upon the death of Representative
Bruce Vento, a leading supporter of the
act since its original passage in 1987.
Reauthorized many times, it is currently
part of NCLB Part C.
14
REQUIREMENTS OF THE LAW
• Every state by federal law must have a
McKinney-Vento State Coordinator’s
Office (THEO in Texas). This office
oversees statewide training.
• Every district must, by law, have a
McKinney-Vento Homeless Liaison to
ensure the rights of homeless students
to enroll in school.
15
MCKINNEY-VENTO AT A GLANCE
• THIS HANDOUT SUMMARIZES THE
KEY PROVISIONS OF THE M-V ACT:
 Definitions of homelessness
 The goal of the Act: academic success
 School selection/transportation
 Enrollment (without documentation)
 Dispute Resolution
 Local liaisons, segregation, subgrants
16
DISTRICT ADMINISTRATORS’
ROLE
“WHAT ADMINISTRATORS SHOULD
KNOW”
 STEREOTYPES AND STIGMAS
 EDUCATIONAL STABILITY
 IMMEDIATE ACCESS: TRAINING FRONT
OFFICE STAFF ON AN ONGOING BASIS
 THE HOMELESS LIAISON
 USE OF TITLE I PART A
17
DEFINING “HOMELESS”
• The Housing and Urban Development
agency (HUD) has a different definition of
“homeless” than the TEA. It does not
include the doubled-up category.
• The Hearth Act of 2009 mandates that
districts and HUD work together to ensure
that families are identified. Be aware that
there may be other families who are
homeless than those identified by HUD.
18
Decline of the Middle Class
Everyone is talking about the wealth gap.
In Texas, it is severe.
In 2012, there are about 70,000 people
living “doubled-up” in Texas.
The Effects of Recession on Household Composition: “Doubling Up” and
Economic Well-Being. Laryssa Mykyta and Suzanne Macartney, U.S.
Census Bureau SEHSD Working Paper Number 2011-4 (2011).
19
WHO IS HOMELESS?
Children and youth who lack a fixed, regular,
and adequate nighttime residence:
 Sharing the housing of others due to loss of
housing, economic hardship, or similar reason
 Living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, camping
grounds due to lack of adequate alternative
accommodations
 Living in emergency or transitional shelters
 THINK OF THE ACRONYM “FAR”
20
WHO IS HOMELESS?
 Awaiting foster care placement
 Living in a public or private place not
designed for humans to live
 Living in cars, parks, abandoned buildings,
substandard housing, bus or train stations,
etc.
 Migratory children living in above
circumstances
 (Definitions of “fixed, adequate, regular” in
“Determining Rights”)
21
“Trailer Trials”
It’s not easy to tell what a homeless
student looks like, yet living doubled up
takes its toll:
22
WHO IS RESPONSIBLE?
• Final identification is the responsibility of
the district liaison; however the process
occurs, it must be thorough and
auditable. Everyone should help.
• The more comprehensive the efforts to
identify students and families, the more
likely it is that most McKinney-Vento
families will succeed.
23
LOCAL EDUCATION AGENCY
LIAISONS
• KEY PROVISIONS
• STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION
24
LOCAL LIAISON DUTIES
• Identify unaccompanied children and
youth through school and community
outreach efforts.
• Help students and families select and
enroll in school.
• Inform eligible students of their rights
to transportation to the school of origin
and assist with arranging
transportation.
25
Parent Notification
The McKinney-Vento
Act requires public
notice of educational
rights of children and
youth experiencing
homelessness be
disseminated in
every school district
at every campus – and
wherever services
are accessed.
PEIMS INDICATOR
1. A determination must be made regarding the
housing status for EACH student in every LEA.
One of five possible living situations must also
be identified for those students who are
identified as "homeless."
2. A determination must be made regarding the
unaccompanied youth status for EACH student
that is identified as "homeless."
27
PEIMS INDICATOR
• Complete information is available at
http://www.utdanacenter.org/theo/news/ind
ex.php
• Effective with the 2012-13 school year,
PEIMS has incorporated two new
indicators for students
28
PEIMS HOMELESS INDICATOR
• ALSO AVAILABLE:
 PEIMS HOMELESS STATUS INDICATOR
INSTRUCTIONS
 http://www.utdanacenter.org/theo/resources/fac
tsheets.php#PEIMSindicators
 PEIMS UNACCOMPANIED YOUTH STATUS
TEMPLATE
 http://www.utdanacenter.org/theo/resources/fac
tsheets.php#PEIMSindicators
29
PEIMS HL STATUS FAQ
• GO TO
http://www.utdanacenter.org/theo/resource
s/factsheets.php#PEIMSindicators
30
Are Your Numbers Reasonable?
 About 10% of all students
below the poverty line will
be homeless or about 1%
of all students will be
homeless.
 As the homeless liaison
or an administrator, it is
your job to see if your
numbers are within this
range.
31
Determining Eligibility
• Uses of the SRQ/retention
• What is the student’s situation?
• Is the housing “fixed, adequate, &
regular”?
32
Definition: SoO
The term "school of origin" is defined as
the specific school building in a school
district that the student attended when
permanently housed or the school in
which the student was last enrolled
before becoming homeless.
33
SCHOOL SELECTION
1. TWO CHOICES FOR ANY M-V CHILD:
a) ZONED SCHOOL OR b) SCHOOL OF
ORIGIN
2. SCHOOL OF ORIGIN-definition
3. CHILD’S BEST INTEREST
4. “ANY DISTRICT” OPTION – TEXAS
EDUCATION CODE 25.—1(B)(5)
5. DURATION OF SERVICES
34
BASIC SERVICE: FAPE AND TITLE I
• Students identified as homeless are entitled to
the same free and appropriate public
education (FAPE) as is afforded any other
student in the district.
• All students in homeless situations are
automatically eligible for district Title I
services.
35
Enrollment: Participating FULLY in School
Activities/Comparable Services
 The McKinney-Vento Act requires that
homeless students be immediately enrolled
in school, including full participation in all
classes and school activities.
 States and districts must eliminate barriers to
enrollment and retention in school. This
includes text book and late fees, etc.
 Districts use Title I, Part A funds, donations,
or other funding for fees
36
Enrollment: Participating FULLY in School
Activities/Comparable Services
• Who can make decisions for an unaccompanied
youth regarding participation in classes,
activities, field trips, etc.?
 States and school districts have implemented
a variety of policies and procedures
 Youth make decisions on their own
 Local liaison makes decisions
 Caregiver forms allow other adults to make
decisions
37
ENROLLMENT: PARTICIPATING
FULLY (CONT.)
What about parental disapproval / school
liability?
 Liability is based on the concept of
negligence, or a failure to exercise
reasonable care.
 Following federal law and providing
appropriate services are evidence of
reasonable care.
 Violating federal law/denying services are
evidence of negligence.
38
BASIC SERVICES:
TRANSPORTATION
SCHOOL OF ORIGIN
TRANSPORTATION, while
costly, may save the LEA funds
in ADA, achievement, and overall
student well-being.
“One child; one school; one
year” – research has shown that
this stability dramatically
improves scores and behaviors.
39
Q&A ON TRANSPORTATION
• KEY PROVISIONS
• STRATEGIES TO IMPLEMENT
• WHAT IS ALLOWED AND WHAT IS
EFFICIENT
40
BASIC SERVICES: FREE AND
REDUCED LUNCH
• Categorical eligibility for
homeless, runaway and migrant
children and youth;
• Documentation of free meal
eligibility for homeless children;
with email, M-V students should
eat free the first day of
enrollment;
• Homeless children residing with
another household;
• Duration of eligibility.
41
Homeless Youth and CPS
• CPS-Involved Chart – When is a child
related to CPS homeless?
42
CPS INVOLVED CHART
WHILE EACH SITUATION MUST BE
EXAMINED INDIVIDUALLY, IT MAY BE
HELPFUL TO ACCESS THIS CHART IF A
CHILD IS CPS-RELATED Chart
43
How Can Schools ENGAGE Children And
Youth Experiencing Homelessness?
• Model a commitment to the child’s
education as the primary outcome – fight
the urge to make attendance (ADA) or test
scores the goal;
• It is unacceptable to drop students with
unexcused absences or to fail to enroll
them in order to “fix” completion rates
44
How Can Schools ENGAGE Children And
Youth Experiencing Homelessness?
• Monitor attendance earlier in the process – use
preventive strategies and rewards/incentives
before attendance becomes an issue. Monitor
FREQUENTLY – 1X a week.
• Make sure the student feels
 Welcome
 Cared For
 Productive
45
Unaccompanied Youth
• Many of the M-V guidelines for
unaccompanied youth are not well
understood
• The M-V laws are based on research
about why youth become
unaccompanied and what is in their
best interest
• Not all unaccompanied youth are
homeless
46
Uses of Title I for M-V Students
• In March of 2014, changes to the Title I
guidance indicated that Title I funds could
now be used for two new purposes:
 Completely fund the liaison’s salary even if
the liaison is not involved with Title I duties;
 Assist in school of origin “excess”
transportation costs
47
New Title I Regs Graph
New$Appropriations$Guidelines$for$the$Use$of$Title$I$/$Title$I,$Part$A,$Set;Asides$Funds$for$Fiscal$Year$2014;15
USDE$Title$I$Allocation$To$Texas$(TEA)
TEA$Title$I$Allocation$to$District/LEA
Other)Required)Set0
Asides)/)Programs
District/LEA$Allocation$of$Title$I$Funds
"Regular")Title)I)Funds
LEA$MAY$
LEA$MAY$allocate$
allocate$funds$$ funds$to$cover$
to$cover$the$
the$"excess$
cost$of$the$
costs"$of$
homeless$
transportation$
liaison's$salary$ for$students$in$
(separate$from$
homeless$
campus$
situations$to$and$
allocations)
from$their$school$
of$origin$and/or$
to$cover$$costs$of$
"supplemental"$
transportation
LEA$
allocates$
funds$$to$
campuses$
for$"school;
wide"$
programs$
(as$
applicable)
Title)I,)Part)A,)Set0Aside)Funds
LEA$allocates$
funds$to$
campuses$for$
"targeted$
assistance"$
programs$(as$
applicable)
[See$notes$on$the$back$of$this$diagram.]
Required$funds$are$allocated$("set;aside")$sufficient$to$provide$$$$$$$$$$$
comparable$services$to$students$in$homeless$situations$NOT$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
served$on$a$Title$I$campus$
Homeless$students$receive$services
Verification$process$in$place$shows$that$
all$homeless$students$have$received$$
services$comparable$to$other$homeless$
students$on$Title$I$campuses
Additional$funds$MAY$be$allocated,$$$$$$$$
or,$if$applicable,$surplus$$funds$$$$$$$$$$$$$
MAY$be$used$to:
Provide$additional$support$services$to$
students$on$BOTH$Title$I$and$non;Title$I$
campuses$that$go$beyond$the$services$
provided$through$the$"regular"$campus$
Title$I$programs.$$These$services$may$be$
different$from$those$received$by$other$
Title$I;eligible$students.
Provide$funds$
Provide$ to$cover$"excess$
salary$for$
costs"$of$
the$LEA$
transporting$
homeless$
students$in$
liaison
homeless$
situations$to$
and$from$their$
48
Unaccompanied Children and Youth
• Unaccompanied: children and youth not in
the physical custody of a parent or
guardian.
• Is there an age range?
No. McKinney-Vento applies to all schoolaged children and youth as defined by state
law.
49
Who Are Unaccompanied Children and
Youth?
• Is there a citizenship requirement?
No. Supreme Court case Plyler v. Doe (1982)
makes it unlawful for schools to deny access to
undocumented immigrants or ask about
immigration status. McKinney-Vento must be
equally applied to undocumented students.
To be considered “homeless”, an
“unaccompanied youth” must also meet the
definition of homelessness.
50
Who Are Unaccompanied Homeless Children
and Youth in your Community?
• Some children and youth are in unstable
living situations due to parental
incarceration, illness, hospitalization or
death.
• Some youth become homeless with their
families, but end up on their own due to
lack of space in temporary
accommodations or shelter policies that
prohibit adolescent boys.
51
Unaccompanied M-V Youth Chart
• Are all Unaccompanied Youth
Homeless?
• Who is unaccompanied but
housed?
52
Who Are Unaccompanied Homeless Children
and Youth in your Community?
• Many unaccompanied children and
youth have fled abuse in the home:
Studies have found that 20-40% of
unaccompanied youth were sexually
abused in their homes, while 40-60%
were physically abused.
• Over two-thirds of callers to Runaway
Hotline report that at least one of their
parents abuses drugs or alcohol.
53
Who Are Unaccompanied Homeless Children and
Youth in your Community? (cont.)
Nationwide, at the end
of 2010, over 11,000
children fled a foster
care placement and
were never found; 2540% of youth who
emancipate from foster
care will end up in
homeless situations.
54
Who Are Unaccompanied Homeless Children
and Youth in your Community?
• Many youth have been thrown out of
their homes due to their sexual
orientation: 20-40% of unaccompanied
youth identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual
or transgender (compared to 3-5% of
adults).
• Over half of youth living in shelters
report that their parents either told
them to leave, or knew they were
leaving and did not care.
55
WELCOMING UNACCOMPANIED
HOMELESS YOUTH
• Make sure youth understand
that your school rules and
procedures may differ from
the many schools they have
attended before.
• Educate staff on sensitive and
discrete communication with
youth who are homeless.
56
How Do Liaisons Identify Unaccompanied
Homeless Youth?
• Provide outreach materials and posters
where unaccompanied youth “hang out”,
including Laundromats, parks,
campgrounds, skate parks,
clubs/organization
• Enlist youth to help spread the word
• Avoid using the word "homeless" in initial
contacts with school personnel and youth
57
How Do Liaisons Identify Unaccompanied
Homeless Youth? (Cont.)
• Ensure discretion and confidentiality when
working with youth; inform youth up-front of
the circumstances under which you may be
required to report the youth to child welfare
or law enforcement.
• Use an SRQ or similar enrollment
questionnaire – no form is dictated by the
state, but many now combine the M-V and
Foster Care questions.
58
Must Schools ENROLL Homeless Youth Without
Proper School Records?
• Yes!
• School districts must enroll M-V youth in
school even if they do not have any of their
student records, including withdrawal
documents from their previous school of
attendance.
• Liaisons have 30 days of provisional
enrollment to help students provide
necessary documentation.
59
Enrolling Unaccompanied M-V
Students
• School districts must not require “dual
residency affidavits” or “host” forms or
similar documents for homeless
students.
• School districts must eliminate barriers
to youth’s enrollment in school.
• The services of a Notary should never be
required to enroll a M-V student. This is a
violation of a federal law.
60
Must Schools ENROLL Unaccompanied
Youth Without A Parent Or Guardian? YES!
School districts must enroll youth in school even if
they do not have guardianship documents.
• Schools/districts cannot require caregivers to
obtain guardianship of youth after enrollment, or
within a specified number of days, in order for
youth to remain enrolled and attending.
• Legal guardianship can be a complex, lengthy
process with many consequences outside
school.
61
Completing Enrollment
• Records transfer requests remove the
requirement for withdrawal
documentation.
• Districts must assist students in
obtaining all necessary documentation
for enrollment, including proofs of
identity, birth certificates, and
immunization records.
62
Must Schools ENROLL Unaccompanied M-V Youth
Without Immunization Records?
• Yes!
• Texas Attorney General’s Decision; April
15, 2004
• Liaison must help students obtain records
or necessary course of immunizations;
Districts need to consider other options to
withdrawal such as the “immunization
exclusion” provided by the TAC 97.62.
63
Meeting Medical Needs
• Texas Family Code, Sec. 32.003(a)(2)(A) and
(B) A child may consent to medical, dental,
psychological, and surgical treatment for the
child by a licensed physician or dentist if the
child is 16 years of age or older and resides
separate and apart from the child's parents,
managing conservator, or guardian, with or
without the consent of the parents, managing
conservator, or guardian and regardless of the
duration of the residence.
64
ENROLLMENT WITHOUT A
PARENT/GUARDIAN— TEXAS LAWS
• The absence of parent, guardian, or legal
caregiver is not grounds to refuse
school enrollment in TX
[http://www.tea.state.tx.us/taa/legal08020
6.html] comment to Tex. Ed. Code
25.002]
• Again, it is not legal to require a
homeless student/family to obtain a
notarized guardian letter in order to
enroll.
65
ENROLLMENT WITHOUT A
PARENT/GUARDIAN—TEXAS LAWS
TX law allows youth to enroll in school on their
own, as long as they are not in the district primarily
to participate in extracurricular activities and not
expelled/no current delinquent/criminal conduct
[Tex. Ed. Code 25.001(b)(4), (d)] NOTE: this
restriction on enrollment does NOT pertain to
students identified as HOMELESS
Just because another district is doing something
doesn’t make it legal; audits can occur at any time.
66
Do Schools Have To Contact The Police
When Enrolling Unaccompanied Youth?
NO, This would create a
barrier to enrollment
and retention in
school!
• Schools must enroll
youth immediately.
School is the safest
and best place for
youth.
67
Do Schools Have To Contact The Police
When Enrolling Unaccompanied Youth?
• Educators are only mandated to report
suspected abuse and/or neglect
(homelessness alone generally is not
abuse/neglect), and this reporting can be to
child welfare.
• If you have reason to suspect kidnapping,
you can immediately see if the student has
been reported missing at
www.missingkids.com or 1-800-THE-LOST
68
Tracking for Success
Implement a system to check on youth’s
attendance, behavior and grades on a
regular basis and to hold the youth
accountable. The system must be respectful
yet firm, recognizing that it is likely that no
other adult is monitoring the student.
69
How Can Schools Help Unaccompanied
Youth Make Up Lost Credits?
• Revise credit accrual policies to excuse
absences and tardies caused by
homelessness (this requires a long-term
relationship with campus attendance
committees)
• Award partial credit for work completed;
award credit for employment
• Offer flexible school hours, particularly
evening hours
• “Chunk” credits into smaller time frames, so
youth can earn some credits every 3 or 4
weeks
70
How Can Schools Help Unaccompanied
Youth Make Up Lost Credits (Cont.)?
• Provide independent study opportunities
• Provide self-paced computerized learning
opportunities, attached to regular HS programs
• These initiatives can be funded with M-V funds
and Title IA set-aside funds, as well as potential
partnerships with dropout prevention/recovery
programs, adult education, 21st Century Learning
Centers, LOCAL BUSINESSES and other
programs.
71
Addendum
• Below is information about programs that
may help certain youth – IDEA, FAFSA,
TANF, CPS, SSI, SNAP, etc.
• Please feel free to access this information
as needed and to call our office if you
need further information.
72
Helping youth with special needs feel
productive
• IDEA requires a “parent” to consent for evaluations and
services
 Biological or adoptive parent,
 Foster parent,
 Guardian,
 Person who is acting in the place of a parent and with whom
the child is living, or
 A person legally responsible for the child
[1401(23); 300.30(a)(4)]
73
If there is no “parent”: Surrogate Parents
School districts must assign a “surrogate parent” within 30 days if:
• no parent can be identified,
• no parent can be located,
• the student is a ward of the State (without a qualified parent or
foster parent; also, court can appoint a surrogate parent), or
• the student is an unaccompanied youth under McKinney-Vento
[1415(b)(2); 300.519]
74
Before surrogate parents:
“Temporary Surrogate Parents”
• Only for unaccompanied youth
• “Stop-gap” measure to expedite evaluations and services
• Exception to normal rules: Can be staff of emergency shelters,
transitional shelters, independent living programs, street
outreach programs, the State, LEA, or other agencies involved
in the education or care of the child.
[1415(b)(2); 300.519; preamble to regulations]
75
Helping Homeless Unaccompanied Youth Feel
Productive: Federal Financial Aid For College
• Unaccompanied youth can apply for federal financial aid
(FAFSA) without a parent’s signature or income information if
they petition to be “independent students” for “other unusual
circumstances” [20 USC 1087vv]
• Must be identified as M-V in their senior year
• Must advocate directly with financial aid administrators at
individual colleges
• Sample letters and resources at:
www.utdanacenter.org/theo
www.naehcy.org
76
Post-secondary support from CPS
Education and vocational
training vouchers (ETVs) are
available to qualifying current
and former foster children who
wish to seek post-secondary
education or training
77
Support for Success: Housing
• Runaway and Homeless Youth Act (RHYA):
 Basic Center 15-day emergency shelters
 Transitional Living Programs for youth 16-21
 Street Outreach Programs
 No income limits
 Youth can enter without parental consent, but the program must
contact parents within 72 hours
• Texas shelters in resource section
• Texas emergency shelters can serve minors with or without
parental consent for 14 days [Tex. Fam. Code 32.202(c)]
78
Support for Success: TANF
• Temporary Aid for Needy Families: for low-income parents,
including teen parents, and their children.
• Teens must be:
 Pregnant or parenting
 Living with parent, legal guardian, adult relative, or other
approved, adult-supervised living situation
 Attending school
 Citizen or lawful permanent resident (LPR)
 A teen can apply without his/her parents.
 Parents’ income will be irrelevant for eligibility.
• There is a lifetime limit on TANF after 18th birthday.
• One-time TANF emergency assistance
www.hhsc.state.tx.us/programs/TexasWorks/TANF.html
79
Support for Success: SSI
• Supplemental Security Income: the only public benefit that
provides a monthly cash payment to a single unaccompanied
youth with disabilities.
• May receive SSI benefits in addition to TANF.
• Youth who receive SSI are also automatically eligible for
Medicaid, which improves access to health care.
• A youth between the ages of 16 and 18 may sign their own
application, as long as they are:
 mentally competent,
 have no court appointed representative, and
 are not in the care of another person or institution.
• Texas Department of Aging and Disability Services,
1-800-252-9240
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Support for Success: Food Stamps (SNAP)
• The food stamp program provides funds that youth can use to
buy food at grocery stores, certain retail stores, and some
restaurants.
• No age minimum.
• No parent signature required.
• No denial solely due to lack of address/photo id.
• http://www.hhsc.state.tx.us/programs/FoodStamps/FoodStamp
FAQ.html
• Texas Health and Human Services Commission, 1-800-2529330
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Support for Success: Medicaid
•
•
•
•
•
families who receive TANF benefits
low-income children under age 19
pregnant women
youths aging out of foster care
families that leave TANF for work or whose time limits have
expired
• families that have high medical bills they can't pay
• http://www.hhsc.state.tx.us/chip/reports/ConsumerGuideEnglish.p
df
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Support for Success: CHIP and SKIP
• Health insurance for children/youth not eligible for Medicaid
 Children’s Health Insurance Program
 http://www.hhsc.state.tx.us/chip/index.html
 State Kids Insurance Program
 http://www.hhsc.state.tx.us/chip/index.html
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Can Unaccompanied Youth Consent For
Their Own Health Care?
• Life-threatening injury or illness
• Any minor 16 or older, residing apart from parents and
managing financial affairs, regardless of source of income
• If parent is not available, the following can consent
 Grandparent
 Adult sibling, aunt, uncle
 School where enrolled, if parent has given them power to
consent
 Any adult with actual care and control of minor, if parent has
given power
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Can Unaccompanied Youth Consent For
Their Own Health Care? (Cont.)
• Substance abuse, emotional or physical abuse, and suicide
prevention
• Infectious diseases
• Treatment of pregnancy (but abortion requires parental
consent)
• Treatment of minor’s own child
[Tex. Health & Safety Code 773.008; Tex. Fam. Code 32.001, 32.003]
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Support for Success: Immigration
• Special Immigrant Juvenile Status—If a juvenile court
determines (a) youth is eligible for long-term foster care (return
to parents is not possible) due to abuse, neglect, or
abandonment and (b) it’s not in youth’s best interest to return
to the home country: youth may qualify for lawful permanent
residence (LPR). (http://immigrantchildren.org/SIJS)
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Support for Success: Immigration (cont.)
• U Visa—A youth who is a victim of physical/mental abuse or
other violent crime and cooperates in the prosecution may
qualify for this visa and/or interim relief.
(http://www.ilrc.org/uvisa.php)
• Violence Against Women Act-- Youth who are being abused by
a parent or stepparent who is a legal resident or citizen may
qualify for LPR (also women abused by spouse)
(http://www.nationalimmigrationproject.org/)
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6 critical components for improving
attendance and preventing truancy
1. Collaboration –
Attendance support and truancy programs that include a broadbased collaborative approach between the program, truant youth
and their families and a multidisciplinary group including,
schools, law enforcement, courts, social services, and the
community are found to be the strongest in positive results and
most sustainable over time.
2. Family involvement –
The most successful truancy programs seek out families
for their advice on the truancy issue and experience within
their community and engage families early and on a
continual basis, not just when a pressing concern is
present.
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6 critical components for improving
attendance
3. Comprehensive approach –
The most promising truancy programs are flexible and broad
enough to take into consideration the multiple and varied
factors that contribute to truancy behavior and needs that are
present among truant youth and their families; they employ a
dynamic approach and respond with a comprehensive
continuum of services.
4. Use of both incentives and sanctions –
The most successful programs employ incentives that are
motivating in nature, and sanctions that are clearly related to
the behavior, imposed quickly, and sufficiently graduated to
respond appropriately to each succeeding absence.
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6 critical components for improving
attendance (cont.)
5. Operate in a supportive context –
Context refers to the program environment, including its
infrastructure and prevailing policies; successful truancy
programs survive and thrive when they operate in a context
where they are not fighting against an existing system
infrastructure or acting in isolation.
6. Rigorous and continual evaluation and assessment of
truancy program impact, outcome, and effectivenessSuccessful truancy programs evaluate their program’s
policies and approaches to determine whether they are
obtaining their desired outcome, and if not, make midcourse
corrections.
•
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Resources: NAEHCY Report
• “Using What We Know: Supporting the
Education of Unaccompanied Homeless
Youth” available at www.naehcy.org
• Comprehensive information, policies and
models for in-school and out-of school
strategies to support the educational success
of unaccompanied youth
• Based on interviews with over 100 NAEHCY
members
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Resources-- Homeless Education
Texas Homeless Education Office (THEO)
http://www.utdanacenter.org/theo
National Association for the Education of Homeless Children
and Youth
http://www.naehcy.org
National Center for Homeless Education
http://www.serve.org/nche
National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty
http://www.nlchp.org
Legal Center for Foster Care and Education
http://www.abanet.org/child/education
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Resources-- Housing
• Shelters
 http://www.hhsc.state.tx.us/programs/familyviolence/shelters.
html
 http://www.artistshelpingchildren.org/shelters.html
• Texas Low-Income Housing Information Service
 http://www.texashousing.org/
• Housing Texas
 http://www.housingtexas.org/Welcome%20Home.html
• Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs
 http://www.tdhca.state.tx.us/
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Resources-- Unaccompanied Youth
• Center for Adolescent Health and the Law
 www.cahl.org
• Legal aid providers
 www.lsc.gov
 www.ptla.org/ptlasite/links/services.htm
• National Network for Youth
 www.nn4youth.org
• National Runaway Switchboard
 www.nrscrisisline.org; 1-800-621-4000
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