THE VICTORIAN AGE
AND VICTORIANISM
It was the period of Queen Victoria's
reign from June 1837 until her death
on 22 January 1901
Long period
of prosperity
Victorianism is the name given to the
attitudes, art, and culture of the later twothirds of the 19th century.
link and transition between the writers of the romantic period and the
literature of the 20th century
VICTORIAN LITERATURE
•Linear concept of time
• Third Person Omniscient
intrusive narrator
Tends to be idealized portraits of difficult lives in which
hard work, perseverance, love and luck win out in the
end
Significant Victorian novelists and poets
•Matthew Arnold
•The Brontë sisters (Emily, Anne and Charlotte
Brontë)
•Christina Rossetti
•Joseph Conrad
•Robert Browning
•Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
•Charles Dickens
THE VICTORIAN LITERATURE IN

Oliver Twist

Nicholas Nickleby

Hard Times
CHARLES DICKENS
OLIVER TWIST

Oliver Twist is the second novel by English author Charles Dickens

Show the cruel treatment of many waif-child in London

One of the first example of Social Novel
For instance:
we are going to consider an extract from the beginning of the book.
(Oliver Twist asks for food a second time)
Setting: dining hall of the workhouse (where Oliver Twist spent his childhood)
Character: Oliver Twist and his companions, the master, Mr Bumble and Mr
Limbkins)
Narrator: Third person omniscient narrator, free indirect speech (The evening
arrived; the boys took their places.); First person narrator, direct speech (“Please,
sir” replied Oliver, “I want some more”
NICHOLAS NICKLEBY

It was Dickens' third novel

Originally published as a serial from 1838 to 1839

The novel centers around the life and adventures of Nicholas
Nickleby, a young man who must support his mother and sister
after his father dies. His Uncle Ralph, who thinks Nicholas will
never amount to anything, plays the role of an antagonist
For instance:
we are going to consider an extract from the beginning of the novel.
( Nicholas is ready for his first teaching day)
Setting: School for Boys in Yorkshire, classroom
Character: Mrs Squeers, the hungry servant, Nicholas and
students
Narrator: Third person omniscient narrator, free indirect
speech (He could not but observe how silent and sad the
boys all seemed to be.); First person narrator, direct speech
(“So he is, to be sure,” rejoined Squeers. “We go upon the
practical mode of teaching…”
HARD TIMES


It is the tenth novel by Charles Dickens
It appraises English society and is aimed at highlighting the
social and economic pressures of the times

Strong criticism

The Utilitarians were one of the targets of this novel
For instance:
we are going to consider an extract from the first book chapter 4.
( Introduction of Mr Bounderby)
Setting: Description of a character without reference to
places ; Drawing room of Stone Lodge
Character: Mrs Grundy, Mr Bounderby, Mr and Mrs
Gradgrind, the hungry servant, Nicholas and students
Narrator: Third person omniscient narrator, free indirect
speech (A year or two younger than his eminently practical
friend, Mr Bounderby looked older;); First person narrator,
direct speech (“No! As wet as a sop. A foot of water in it”,
said Mr Bounderby. His way of talking is pompous and
arrogant.