Background Definition 1) A visual picture of information → allows the mind to see undiscovered patterns and relationships. 2) A tool to organize the patterns of writing. Coherence 1. Clear labels for the relationship between concepts analysis → a visual picture to analyze the organizations Consistence 1. Establish a routine for implementing an essay Literature Review Graphic Organizers 1. Organize thoughts for reading and writing short stories 2. Find the themes, describe the characters, and understand the conflicts or resolutions of the short stories. 3. Write a short story with graphic organizers Correlation: graphic organizers short story writing practices 1. Li (2007): graphic organizers and story organization. 2. Ibnian (2010): Story mapping technique and visual awareness Sequential understanding of stories. Better control of developing narratives Correlation: graphic organizers short story writing practices 3. Nguyen (2007):students’ advancement in narrative writing and graphic organizers. 4. Brenna (2006): graphic organizer software online and positive improvement in “daily writing assignments.” Effectiveness of graphic organizers 1. Brombley, Irwin-DeVitis, and Modlo (1995): “Make visually explicit the organizational patterns of text” “Facilitate Four Skills” 2. Four organizational patterns: hierarchical, conceptual, sequential, and cyclical Effectiveness of graphic organizers 3. Our Study Focus: Sequential pattern <> Organize events of stories. 4. The Expected Result <> events into “cause/effect, chronology, process/product or problem/solution” order Spider map, Character analysis grid, Story map 1. Our objective: Short story writing guidance and three graphic organizers. Read/write the themes, to describe the characters, and map the sequential order of a story Spider map, Character analysis grid, Story map 2. Delsandro (2007): students’ realization of themes and the skill of spider map 3. Fournier and Graves’s (2002): character analysis grid and description skills Spider map, Character analysis grid, Story map 4. Ibnian (2010): Applying story map technique in teaching story writing References Bellanca, James. (2007). A Guide to Graphic Organizers. Brenna, Keith. (2006). Mind-Mapping, Graphic Organizers, and Student Writing. Bromley, Karen, Irwin-DeVitis, Linda, and Modlo Marcia. (1995). GraphicOrganizers :Visual Strategies for Active Learning References Fournier, David N. E. and Graves Michael F. (2002). Scaffolding Adolescents' Comprehension of Short Stories. Ibnian, Salem Saleh Khalaf. (2010). The Effect of Using the Story- Mapping Technique on Developing Tenth Grade Students’ Short Story Writing Skills in EFL. References Li, D. (2007). Story Mapping and its Effects on the Writing Fluency and Word Diversity of Students with Learning Disabilities. Nguyen, Sharine. (2007). The Effect of Graphic Organizers on Third Grade Students’ Narrative Writing.