Background
Definition
1) A visual picture of information
→ allows the mind to see
undiscovered
patterns and relationships.
2) A tool to organize the patterns
of writing.
Coherence
1. Clear labels for the relationship
between concepts analysis
→ a visual picture to analyze the
organizations
Consistence
1. Establish a routine for
implementing an essay
Literature Review
Graphic Organizers
1. Organize thoughts for reading and
writing short stories
2. Find the themes, describe the
characters, and understand the
conflicts or resolutions of the short
stories.
3. Write a short story with graphic
organizers
Correlation:
graphic organizers
short story writing practices
1. Li (2007): graphic organizers and story
organization.
2. Ibnian (2010):

Story mapping technique and visual
awareness

Sequential understanding of stories.

Better control of developing narratives
Correlation:
graphic organizers
short story writing practices
3. Nguyen (2007):students’ advancement
in narrative writing and graphic
organizers.
4. Brenna (2006): graphic organizer
software online and positive
improvement in “daily writing
assignments.”
Effectiveness of
graphic organizers
1. Brombley, Irwin-DeVitis, and Modlo (1995):

“Make visually explicit the organizational
patterns of text”

“Facilitate Four Skills”
2. Four organizational patterns: hierarchical,
conceptual, sequential, and cyclical
Effectiveness of
graphic organizers
3. Our Study Focus: Sequential pattern
<> Organize events of stories.
4. The Expected Result <> events into
“cause/effect, chronology,
process/product or problem/solution”
order
Spider map, Character
analysis grid, Story map
1.


Our objective:
Short story writing guidance and
three graphic organizers.
Read/write the themes, to describe
the characters, and map the
sequential order of a story
Spider map, Character
analysis grid, Story map
2. Delsandro (2007): students’
realization of themes and the skill
of spider map
3. Fournier and Graves’s (2002):
character analysis grid and
description skills
Spider map, Character
analysis grid, Story map
4. Ibnian (2010):
Applying story map technique in
teaching story writing
References



Bellanca, James. (2007). A Guide to Graphic
Organizers.
Brenna, Keith. (2006). Mind-Mapping, Graphic
Organizers, and Student Writing.
Bromley, Karen, Irwin-DeVitis, Linda, and Modlo
Marcia. (1995). GraphicOrganizers :Visual
Strategies for Active Learning
References


Fournier, David N. E. and Graves Michael F.
(2002). Scaffolding Adolescents'
Comprehension of Short Stories.
Ibnian, Salem Saleh Khalaf. (2010). The
Effect of Using the Story- Mapping
Technique on Developing Tenth Grade
Students’ Short Story Writing Skills in EFL.
References


Li, D. (2007). Story Mapping and its Effects
on the Writing Fluency and Word Diversity
of Students with Learning Disabilities.
Nguyen, Sharine. (2007). The Effect of
Graphic Organizers on Third Grade
Students’ Narrative Writing.
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Effectiveness of graphic organizers