Mass Society Theories

Hypodermic Needle

Direct, strong effects
Media & Intermediaries

Minimal Effects




2-step flow
Intermediaries of influence
“readers” are active agents
Agenda Setting


Opinions of opinion leaders shaped in elite media
Media coverage affects public opinion more than events
in the “real” world
Problems with Media Theories

Perceptual Gap

People experience and ascribe more media
influence than theories predict
Narrow range of effects examined
 Narrow range of evidence sought
 Problems in measurement

Deep, Gradual Effects

Sense-making


Socialization


Media combined with popular wisdom, other
influences
Media shapes undeveloped thinking
Cultivation

World view shaped over time
Cultivation
Long term exposure
 Little or no mitigating experience
 Skewed sense of “real world”

More violent
 Stereotypes

Media & the Social World
Active Audience
Media Message/
Product
Social World
Technology
Media Industry
Adapted from Croteau & Hoynes, 2000
Social Construction of reality
 Structure & Agency
 Media and Institutions

Concentration
 Conglomeration
 Integration


Political power of media corporations
Integration
Music
Books
Film
Musicians
Authors
Actors
Record Label
Publisher
Studios
CD
Manufacture
Printer
Film/Video
Manufacture
Record Club
Trucking
Theaters
Rec. Stores
Bookstores
Video Stores
Pressures on Regulation
Political
 Commerical
 Technological
 TCA 1996

Ideology

Ideological analysis
Structures & agency
 Fit between images/texts and ways of thinking


Hegemony
Naturalizes relationships, outlooks
 Media bring images & point of view

Download

Mass Society Theories