Chapter 12.2 Classic Period Mesoamerica The Maya WHAP 2013 Introduction/Review As Teotihuacán flourished, in the South the Maya were building their own empire. Maya never politically unified Rival kingdoms competed for regional control. Much like the Mycenaean era Greeks. Teotihuacán 100 BCE - 750 CE Maya 250 CE - 900 CE Olmec 1200 BCE - 400 BCE Aim: What were the achievements of the Mayan Civilization? Do Now: Based on this image what could you say about the civilization that built this? Ask your neighbor: If a Mayan were to come back to Latin America today what would they find different today. I. Mayan Civilization (1000 BC- 1500 AD) A. Geography Located in today’s Mexico, at the Yucatan Peninsula 2. Most of their land was flat and tropical a. Used terraced landscaping b. used irrigation in drier regions Mayan Politics Established a hereditary monarchy. A king ruled a region There were many Mayan kings 2 women are known to have ruled Mayan kingdoms Mayan Economy Main food staples were corn and beans Traded with Teotihuacán and neighboring tribes Mayan Religion Polytheistic Sacrificed victims were typically captured nobility from other areas. Mayan Religion Gods of Nature Some gods included Lady Rainbow Gods of Rain, Maize, and Sun. Without the help of these important gods, there would be no crops and everyone would starve. Priests •the most powerful people in the Maya civilization next to the king. •Maya believed that their priests could talk to the gods. The priests decided: •when to plant crops •when people could marry and to whom. •Priests approved all major decisions for the society Mayan Society Organized in the Patrilineal family system. Women played central roles in religious and economic life of every home. Maya Cities The Maya did not have metal tools—they used stone, bone, and wood tools to build hundreds of magnificent cities. •Cities were centers of religion and learning. Maya Cities Every city had an impressive palace for its ruler •a marketplace •an open-air plaza •at least one huge pyramid, a large temple, and one ball court similar to the stadiums we have today. People came to town to shop, to worship, and to cheer at the ball games. Two of the largest cities were • Tikal (tee-KAHL), located in the present-day country of Guatemala • Copan (ko-PAHN), located in the present-day country of Honduras QUESTION: What were three things you could find in every Maya city? Mayan Inventions Developed hieroglyphic writing similar to Egyptians. Mayan Glyphs sky king house child city Built observatories to study the heavens Created calendars based on the movements of the sun. Ritual calendar of 260 days, with 13 months of 20 days. Solar calendar of 365 days in 18 months of 20 days plus 5 “bad days”. Long count calendar which began in 3114 BCE and will end on Dec. 21, 2012. Used underground food storage Invented a number system that included zero Answer #s 1-5 below. Art/Architecture/Entertainment • Large Pyramids dominated buildings • Art reflected kings and warriors at war • Game like soccer popular entertainment Mayan Geography Natural Barriers Highlands of modern day Guatemala Hot coastal plain along the Pacific Coast the tropical rain forest of the Yucatan Peninsula. These natural barriers helped to protect the Maya civilization for 1300 years. Mayan Education • The Maya studied art, mathematics, architecture, drama, medicine, and music. Mayan Military Fought to capture slaves rather than territory. Kings and nobles participated in warfare Captured elites sacrificed, commoners enslaved. End of the Maya For some reason the city was abandoned around 1300. If the Spanish had not made it policy to kill all the Mayan Priests and burn all their books when they arrived in Mexico, we would have more answers!