The Essential Parts of a
Narrative
Narratives are also known as
stories.
“The Three Little Pigs” is an
example of a narrative.
Essential Parts of a Narrative
Narrative
Character
Setting
Plot
Character:
 A character can be a
person, animal, or
imaginary creature
 There are usually 1 or 2
main characters in a
narrative
 There can be many
secondary characters in a
narrative
Characterization: the technique an author
uses to present and develop a character
Indirect Characterization
Direct Characterization
The reader draws conclusions
based on words and actions
of all characters
The author makes straight
forward comments
describing the characters
Example: “She grabbed me by the
hair and yanked me from the
chair. She punched me in the
side of the head and threw me
to the floor.” (page 45)
Example: “Oh Martha’s
wonderful. She would even
hum to you.” (page 207)
Protagonist
Antagonist
 The central character
in a literary work
 The character or force
that opposes the
protagonist in a work
of literature
Example: Jennings is the
protagonist in They Cage
the Animals at Night.
Example: The “system” is
the antagonist in They
Cage the Animals at
Night.
Setting:
Setting refers to
where the story
takes place.
 The time (ex. future,
past, present)
 The place (ex. outer
space, Jones Beach,
Julie’s house
Plot:
the series of related events in a
literary work; often follows a pattern
The plot must:
have a beginning, middle, and end
tell events in a logical order
Contain EXPOSITION, RISING ACTION,
a PROBLEM or CONFLICT, a CLIMAX,
FALLING ACTION, and a RESOLUTION
Plot Diagram:
Climax
Conflict
Falling
Action
Rising
Action
Exposition
BEGINNING
Resolution
MIDDLE
END
Definitions:
EXPOSITION: A fancy word for the beginning of the story. This is
where the characters and setting are introduced.
RISING ACTION: In this part of the story the conflict(s) occur, tension
builds, and the story moves toward the climax.
CONFLICT: The problem or struggle between opposing forces. There
can be many conflicts leading up to the climax
CLIMAX: The pivotal moment in a story when the protagonist is faced
with a choice which will effect the outcome of the story.
FALLING ACTION: The events that happen after the climax which
usually wrap up the action and lead to the resolution.
RESOLUTION: The conclusion of the story in which we see the
outcome of the main conflict.
Congratulations!
You have successfully completed
your introduction to the essential
elements of a narrative.