Grammar – Unit 48
Reported speech
Agenda

Learning Objectives

Example Set A - It is not always necessary to change
the verb in reported speech.

Example Set B - You need what was said and what is
really true

Example Set C - difference between say and tell

Example Set D - Tell/ask somebody to do something
Reported speech
2
Agenda

Learning Objectives

Example Set A - It is not always necessary to change
the verb in reported speech.

Example Set B - You need what was said and what is
really true

Example Set C - difference between say and tell

Example Set D - Tell/ask somebody to do something
Reported speech
3
Learning Objectives

It is not always necessary to change the verb in reported speech.

You can also change the verb to the past but if you are reporting a
finished situation you must use a past verb.

You have to use a past form when there is a difference between
what is said and what is really true.

Difference between say and tell.

Tell/ask somebody to do something.
Reported speech
4
Agenda

Learning Objectives

Example Set A - It is not always necessary to change
the verb in reported speech.

Example Set B - You need what was said and what is
really true

Example Set C - difference between say and tell

Example Set D - Tell/ask somebody to do something
Reported speech
5
Example Set A
It is not always necessary to change the verb in reported speech. If you
report something and the situation hasn’t changed, you do not need to
change the verb to the past:

direct
Paul said, ‘My new job is very interesting.
reported
Paul said that his new job is very interesting.
(The situation hasn’t changed. His job is still interesting.)

direct
reported
Helen said, ‘ I want to go to New York next year.’
Helen told me that she wants to go to New York next year.
(Helen still wants to go to New York next year.)
Reported speech
6
Continue…
You can also change the verb to the past:

Paul said that his new job was very interesting.

Helen told me that she wanted to go to New York next year
But if you are reporting a finished situation, you must use a past verb:

Paul left the room suddenly., He said he had to go. (not has to go)
Reported speech
7
Agenda

Learning Objectives

Example Set A - It is not always necessary to change
the verb in reported speech.

Example Set B - You need what was said and what is
really true

Example Set C - difference between say and tell

Example Set D - Tell/ask somebody to do something
Reported speech
8
Example Set B
You need what was said and what is really true

You need to use a past form when there is a difference between
what was said and what is really true. For example:
You met Sonia a few days ago.
She said: “Joe is in hospital.’ (direct speech)
Later that day you met Joe in the street. You say:
‘I didn’t expect to see you, Joe. Sonia said you were in hospital.’
(not ‘Sonia said you are in hospital’, because clearly he is not)
Reported speech
9
Agenda

Learning Objectives

Example Set A - It is not always necessary to change
the verb in reported speech.

Example Set B - You need what was said and what is
really true

Example Set C - difference between say and tell

Example Set D - Tell/ask somebody to do something
Reported speech
10
Example Set C
- difference between say and tell
Say and tell
If you say who somebody is talking to, use tell:

Sonia told me that you were in hospital. (not Sonia said me)

What did you tell the police? (not say the police)
Otherwise use say:

Sonia said that you were in hospital. (not Sonia told that…)

What did you say?
Reported speech
11
Continue
But you can ‘say something to somebody’:
 Ann said goodbye to me and left (not Ann said me
goodbye)
 What did you say to the police?
Reported speech
12
Agenda

Learning Objectives

Example Set A - It is not always necessary to change
the verb in reported speech.

Example Set B - You need what was said and what is
really true

Example Set C - difference between say and tell

Example Set D - Tell/ask somebody to do something
Reported speech
13
Example Set D
- Tell/ask somebody to do something
Tell/ask somebody to do something
We also use the infinitive (to do/to say etc.) in reported speech,
especially with tell and ask (for orders and requests):

direct
‘Stay in bed for a few days,’ the doctor said to me.

reported
The doctor told me to stay in bed for a few days.

direct
reported
‘Don’t shout’, I said to Jim.
I told Jim not to shout.

Reported speech
14
Continue…

direct ‘Please don’t tell anybody what happened,’ Jackie said to me.

reported Jackie asked me not to tell anybody what (had) happened.
You can also say ‘Somebody said (not) to do something’:

Jackie said not to tell anyone. (but not Jackie said me)
Reported speech
15
Summary

Learning Objectives

Example Set A - It is not always necessary to change
the verb in reported speech.

Example Set B - You need what was said and what is
really true

Example Set C - difference between say and tell

Example Set D - Tell/ask somebody to do something
Reported speech
16
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