4th International Evidence
Based Policing Conference
A systematic study of Police Patrol
using new technology
Neil Wain
Where are the police?
• Tackling Patrol Effectively (1996)
• Diary of a Police Officer (2001) only 17%
officer time on “reassurance patrol”.
• In 2010 HMIC asked this question
• In its report ‘Demanding Times’ (2011)
only 12% “visible” and “available”
• Not just a question of where are they or
when are they on? But what are they doing?
Police patrol the evidence
• Visible Policing is linked to public
confidence.
• Deterrence theory of patrol now proved
– ‘clear, if modest, general deterrent effects of substantial increases in police
presence in crime hot spots … [it is time for] criminologists to stop saying
“there is no evidence” that police patrol can affect crime’
(Sherman and Weisburd, 1995)
• Philadelphia Foot Patrol experiment 2009
• Bratton – “cops on the dots”
Police patrol the evidence
• Albert J Reiss Jr
• Systematic Social
Observation (SSO)
• Police field research in
1960/70’s
How Systematic Social
Observation is done.
“. . .it includes selection of problems for investigation,
preliminary investigation by direct observation (optional),
definition of the universe to be observed, sampling for
observation, development of instruments to collect and
record observations systematically, provision for
measuring error, pre-testing instruments, organization for
direct field observations, processing observations,and
quantitative analysis”*
*Reiss, “Systematic Observation of Natural Social Phenomena,”
How Systematic Social
Observation is done.
• “Where” – Geographically defined study
areas.
• The “When” – specific tours of duty
• The “What” – police and citizen behaviours
• The “Who” – officers in the beats at
selected times.
A systematic study of Police Patrol
using new technology - method
• Study in GMP
• Utilise ARLS, xReplay and FOXi
A systematic study of Police Patrol
using new technology - method
• “Where” – Set of Police beats/Priority
neighbourhoods
– Volume of crime
– Calls for service
– Sociodemographic data
• “When” –Specific tours of duty
• “What” specific tasked or directed patrol
• “Who” Police officers and PCSO’s on patrol.
A systematic study of Police Patrol
using new technology – outcomes?
• Analysis of patrols tasked to patrol crime hotspots
and priority neighbourhoods.
• Revealing:
–
–
–
–
–
Where police patrol?
Length of time?
Any relationship with crimes/incidents?
Any crime reduction?
Cost effectiveness?
• Limitations?
A systematic study of Police
Patrol using new technology
A systematic study of Police
Patrol using new technology
A systematic study of Police
Patrol using new technology
A systematic study of Police Patrol
using new technology
A systematic study of Police Patrol
using new technology
Tonight’s focus
•OLDHAM ROAD ROCHDALE
(MARKED TO WORK THIS ROAD THROUGHOUT TOUR-BELIVED STOLEN AUDI AND OTHER CARS TRAVELLING THIS
ROUTE)
•TOWN HEAD, ROCHDALE, P1A beat
(Burglary hotspot)
Descriptions from 2 breaks on this area:
3) KIRKHOLT AND KINGSWAY, ROCDALE, P2H & F
beat
(Burglary hotspot)
Looking For "Jack Jones" Before Walking Off Towards Yorkshire Street.
She Described The Male As 19-20 Years Old, About 5'4" Height, With A Slim
Wiry Build. Not Further Described.
This Male May Or May Not Be Connected To The Incident But Is Included For
Information Purposes.
86 Rugby Road
XX Stanley St (27th) - P1A4
White Male, Slim Build, Late Teens, Approx 5'6" Tall, Dark Black Hair, Possibly Wearing A Black Ed Hardy T-Shirt
And Dark Coloured Jeans. Nfd Sus. No forensics
A systematic study of Police Patrol
using new technology
Start Date/time:
01/06/2011 19:00:00
End Date/time:
02/06/2011 02:00:00
Type
In
Out
Duration
Response
01/06/2011 21:42
01/06/2011 21:43
00:01:04
Response
01/06/2011 21:43
01/06/2011 21:44
00:00:57
Sergeant (NPT)
01/06/2011 21:32
01/06/2011 21:36
00:04:01
Sergeant (NPT)
01/06/2011 21:38
01/06/2011 21:40
00:01:55
Traffic
02/06/2011 00:36
02/06/2011 00:37
00:01:01
Inspector
01/06/2011 21:38
01/06/2011 21:40
00:02:02
Total Time
0:11:00
A systematic study of Police Patrol
using new technology
A systematic study of Police Patrol
using new technology
T.N.S.
T.N.S.
T.N.S.
Response
Response
Response
Sergeant
Sergeant
Sergeant
PCSO
PCSO
PCSO
Sergeant
T.N.S.
T.N.S.
T.N.S.
T.N.S.
T.F.U.
T.F.U.
T.F.U.
T.N.S.
T.N.S.
T.N.S.
Pool
Pool
Pool
Pool
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
01/06/2011
19:57
20:07
20:12
21:21
01:38
01:41
20:52
21:05
21:41
19:43
19:42
19:41
01:50
00:50
20:03
20:52
21:41
20:09
20:12
20:15
00:51
00:09
00:19
00:51
00:54
01:28
21:20
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
01/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
02/06/2011
01/06/2011
Total Time
19:58
20:08
20:13
21:22
01:39
01:42
21:04
21:08
21:42
20:04
20:04
20:04
01:56
01:30
20:04
21:07
21:42
20:10
20:12
20:16
01:31
00:18
00:21
02:00
01:27
01:31
21:21
00:00:58
00:00:57
00:00:58
00:00:54
00:00:54
00:01:02
00:11:54
00:03:00
00:01:01
00:20:58
00:21:02
00:23:09
00:05:59
00:39:59
00:01:15
00:15:00
00:00:59
00:00:57
00:00:21
00:00:57
00:40:01
00:08:58
00:02:00
01:08:54
00:33:06
00:02:48
00:00:50
5:08:51
A systematic study of Police Patrol
using new technology
But we can map the actual
patrol undertaken.
PCSO
01/06/2011
19:43
01/06/2011
20:04
00:20:58
PCSO
01/06/2011
19:42
01/06/2011
20:04
00:21:02
PCSO
01/06/2011
19:41
01/06/2011
20:04
00:23:09
A systematic study of Police Patrol
using new technology
These are the results of the operation from the areas examined
A systematic study of Police Patrol
using new technology
• “I’m asking that more
researchers begin to work with
us and among us in the realworld laboratories of our
departments and cities to help
us prove or disprove the
beliefs and practices that I, as
a practitioner, and most of my
colleagues deeply believe,
espouse, and practice.”
Bill Bratton former Commissioner NYPD/LAPD
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A systematic study of Police Patrol using new technology