Upgrade 2 - Unit 5
Grammar Reference
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Honey, did you
pay the bills I
asked you to?
Unfortunately not!
When I arrived at
the bank, it had
already closed!
We use the Past Perfect to talk about an action in the past
before another action in the past.
It is frequently used to report what someone else said or
thought.
For example:
When I arrived at the station the bus had already left.
João told me that he had traveled with his wife.
When I arrived at the station, the bus had already left.
PAST
1:
The bus left.
2:
I arrived at the station.
PRESENT
FUTURE
AFFIRMATIVE FORM
I
You
had
He
We
She
You
It
They
traveled.
NEGATIVE FORM
I
You
had
He
We
She
You
not
It
They
had not
hadn’t
traveled.
INTERROGATIVE FORM
I
you
Had
traveled?
he
we
she
you
it
they
It is similar to the Past Perfect Simple. However, the
continuous form expresses longer actions before another
action in the past.
It is also similar to the Present Perfect Continuous.
Nevertheless, instead of the time being NOW, the time is
the PAST.
For example:
• I had been waiting in the line for hours until I could finally pay my bills.
• I had been waiting for hours, when my wife arrived.
I had been waiting for hours when my wife arrived.
PAST
1:
waiting
2:
the wife arrived
PRESENT
FUTURE
AFFIRMATIVE FORM
I
You
had
He
We
She
You
It
They
been
waiting.
NEGATIVE FORM
I
You
had
He
We
She
You
not
been
It
They
had not
hadn’t
waiting.
INTERROGATIVE FORM
I
you
Had
been
he
we
she
you
it
they
waiting?
And you?
Had you studied English before you started studying in
your current school?
How long had you been waiting before this class started?
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had already left