GENDER RESPONSIVE
BUDGETING
Gender, Women and Politics
The National Democratic Institute
INTRODUCTIONS/
GROUND RULES
• Introductions
• Ground Rules
• Ice Breaker Exercise
GENDER RESPONSIVE
BUDGETING (GRB) OBJECTIVES
• To develop a basic understanding of
GRB
• To become familiar with the budget
process and tools to make it more
equitable
GRB TOPICS
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What is GRB?
Benefits and goals
GRB requirements
Budget process
GRB stakeholders
Five step approach
GRB tools
Country examples
KEY TERMS
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Gender
Budget
Expenditure
Revenue
Income
Audit
Accounting
Transparency
Accountability
WHAT IS GRB?
• Analysis of budget (expenditures and
revenues) from a gender perspective
• Disaggregation of budget in terms of its
impact on men and women
• Highlights the gaps between policy and
resources committed
• National, regional and local levels
Photo: www.pixabay.com
WHAT GRB IS NOT
• Not a separate budget for women
• Doesn’t necessarily seek to increase the
amount of money spent on women
• Not an end in itself
GRB BENEFITS
• Promotes government transparency and
accountability
• Addresses discrimination, inefficiency
and corruption
• More effective use of public funds
• Improves policies and contributes to
economic growth
• Strengthens citizen advocacy and
monitoring
GRB GOALS
• Raise awareness of gender issues and
gender impacts of budgets and policies
• Hold government accountable for
budgetary and policy commitments
• Better promote gender equality
Photo: NDI
GRB REQUIREMENTS
• Gender knowledge
• Budget knowledge
• Issue/sector-specific knowledge
GRB ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
• Access to the budget
• Availability of gender-disaggregated
data
• Awareness of need for/benefits of GRB
• Political will
• Citizen support and clear objectives
• Adequate resources
EXAMPLE: SOUTH AFRICA
• Women’s Budget Initiative
created by parliamentary
committee and two NGOs
• Analyzed national ministries,
public sector employment
and taxation
• Case studies on local
government, donor funding
and job creation
WHAT IS A BUDGET?
• Main policy statement and executing
tool of government
• Reflection of a country’s values
GRB AND THE BUDGET
PROCESS
• Budget cycle: planning, execution,
evaluation/auditing
• Timing of GRB is critical
• Different budgeting models require
different GRB approaches
BUDGET CYCLE
• Determining the
macroeconomic situation
• Preparing guidelines and
setting expenditure
ceilings
• Preparing ministry
spending proposals
• Securing legislative
approval
• Monitoring, evaluating and
ensuring accountability
EXERCISE: BUDGET CYCLE
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What are the procedures?
How are national priorities determined?
What are the constraints?
What is the budget format?
What is the role of ministries?
What role does the legislature play?
What are the roles of sub-national
governments?
GRB STAKEHOLDERS
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Government
Lawmakers
Civil society organizations and citizens
International actors
ROLE OF THE LEGISLATURE
Pass the Budget Act
• Examine and decide on budget
• Ensure commitments are upheld
Legislative scrutiny may be minimal:
• Insufficient time or information
• Lack of capacity/resources/political will
• Limited power
• Disproportionate influence
ROLE OF THE LEGISLATURE
• Monitoring the budget and ensuring
accountability
• Auditing and reporting on spending
• Example: French yellow paper
EXAMPLE: GRB IN UGANDA
• A parliamentary initiative with linkages
to non-governmental organizations
• Budget research on ministries at the
national level
• Sustainability
EXERCISE: GRB PLANNING
Develop preliminary answers
to key questions
Photo: NDI
GRB FIVE STEP APPROACH
Step 1: Analyze the situation of women,
men, girls and boys in a given sector
Photo: Alamy
GRB FIVE STEP APPROACH
• Step 2: Assess the gender
responsiveness of legislation, policies,
and programs
• Step 3: Assess budget allocations
GRB FIVE STEP APPROACH
• Step 4: Monitor spending and service
delivery
• Step 5: Assess outcomes
EXERCISE:
PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS
• Analyze the situation
• Statistics
• Assess gender responsiveness
• Policies, programs, legislation
• Assess budget allocations
GRB TOOLS
Gender Sensitive
Policy Assessment:
– Links budgets to policies
– Examines each budget area and related
policies from a gender perspective
– Considers likely gender impact of
allocations and associated policies
GRB TOOLS
Beneficiary Assessments:
– Ask intended beneficiaries to assess
how public spending is meeting their
needs and what their priorities are
– Use opinion polls, attitude surveys,
focus groups, interviews, role plays
GRB TOOLS
Public Expenditure Analysis:
– Compares distribution of public
spending among women and men
– Estimates the amount spent on a given
service for women and men
Photo: Felicity Thompson, WHO
GRB TOOLS
Sex-disaggregated Analysis of
Impact of the Budget on Time Use:
– Focuses on the amount of unpaid work
– Is this likely to increase the time that
men/women spend on unpaid work?
Image: www.pixababy.com
GRB TOOLS
Revenue Analysis:
– Examines the proportion of income paid
in taxes/user fees by women and men
Gender Sensitive Budget Statement:
– Governments can issue gender analysis
of its programs and budgets
EXAMPLE: GRB IN TANZANIA
• NGO-based GRB spurred government to
start its own
• GRB team includes government officials
and NGO reps
• Focuses on national ministries and on
local budgets
• Donor support
CASE STUDY: GRB IN INDIA
Ministry of Finance
• Included a column on gender outcomes
in the budget
• Mandated Ministries to identify gender
mainstreaming programs and improve
women’s access to services
CASE STUDY: GRB IN INDIA
Ministry of Environment
• Impact of climate change on women
Planning Commission
• Ensure that national and state plans are
gender sensitive
Department of Commerce
• Gender implications of special
economic zones
CASE STUDY: GRB IN INDIA
Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs
• Issue of deserted wives of non-resident Indian
marriages
• Periodic review of female domestic servants
in foreign countries
Ministry of Urban Development
• Clean and safe public toilets
• Adequate street lighting
Photo: Vivek Chugh, rgbstock.com
CASE STUDY: GRB IN INDIA
Ministry of Defense
• Gender inclusion and non-discrimination
in armed forces
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
• Provide solar lanterns to girl students
• Train women to sell and repair
renewable energy devices
CASE STUDY: GRB IN INDIA
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
• Health insurance initiative for women
• Increase immunization levels for girls
Ministry of Agriculture
• National Gender Resource Centre
• Increase access to credit and markets
Photo: www.pixabay.com
GRB LESSONS LEARNED
• GRBs have the most impact when they
are led by government and driven by
civil society
• GRB has to be institutionalized
• Ongoing monitoring is essential
• Research to inform policy and support
advocacy
• Donor-driven initiatives are not
sustainable
EXERCISE: GRB ROLE PLAY
• Roles:
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Health and Education
Agriculture and Rural Development
Commerce
Civil Service
Photo: NDI
GENDER RESPONSIVE
BUDGETING REVIEW
• Analysis of budget from a gender
perspective
• Promotes more effective use of funds
• Need access to budget and data – and
political will
• Must be timed around budget cycle
• Must be adapted and has many tools
• Cross-sector initiatives are most
sustainable and effective
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