Centre for Transport Studies
Assessing risk in the context of road safety
Safety management systems in Europe and the UK
Heather Ward
ICPS London April 2014
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Risk of death and serious injury on the
roads of the world
• 1.24 million killed
on the roads each
year
• 20-50 million
sustain non-fatal
injuries
• Young adults
between 15 and
44 years account
for 59% of global
road traffic deaths
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Factors leading to collisions
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Fatigue - sleepiness
Drink and drugs
Foreign drivers
Overloaded or poorly
maintained vehicles
• Illegal speeding and other
violations
• Mobile phones and other
distractions
• Road related features
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Governments pass legislation to regulate
conduct of drivers - important to reduce risk
factors leading to road deaths and injuries
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speed limits,
safety-belts and child-restraint laws,
helmet laws,
blood-alcohol concentration limits,
daytime running light requirements,
mobile phone laws, and
licensing regulations.
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European Regulations governing working goods
vehicles over 3.5 tonnes, buses over 8 seats, and
coaches over 15 seats
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Size and weight of goods vehicles
Drivers’ hours of working
Maximum speed of goods vehicles
Mirrors, side and rear under-run protection
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EU permitted length, weight and height
length
weight
height
Buses and
coaches
12m rigid
18m articulated
Rigid hgv
12m
18 tonne
n/a
Articulated
hgv
16.5m
18m with trailer
18.5m road
train
40 tonne
44 tonne if road
friendly
suspension
n/a
4.57m
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Maximum driving time to address fatigue
• 9 hours in a day - this can be extended to 10
hours twice a week
• 56 hours in a week
• 90 hours in any 2 consecutive weeks
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Top speed is limited
National speed limits for vehicle type and weight
apply when lower than the top speed which limiter
controls. Tachographs give speed driven.
– Bus - 100 km/h
– Coach – 122 km/h (in UK 100km/h)
– HGV over 3.5 tonne 90 km/h
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Some safety features on HGVs
• Nearside turning vehicles
dangerous for cyclists and
pedestrians as can get
caught in blind spot.
Mirrors are required
• Under-run protection helps
stop cyclists and
pedestrians being dragged
under the wheels. Solid
‘skirts’ are best but side
and rear protection
required
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Each country responsible for enforcement of
EU regulations on their own roads
• Each vehicle must be fitted with a tachograph to
automatically record speed, distance, driving time
and rest time
• All UK and European drivers on UK roads legally
required to record their activities and produce
them on demand to police or DVSA
• Operators/employers must download weekly
record from each driver and keep for one year
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Driver and Vehicle Services
Agency and Police
• Check authorised load
weights and type of load
permitted
• Check vehicles (lorries,
buses and coaches) for
roadworthiness and
mechanical faults
• DVSA conducts
statutory testing and
issues certificates
• Look at tachograph
records
• Make sure driver has a
valid occupational
driving licence
• Issue penalty notices
and impound vehicles
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Safety management systems for occupational
road risk in the UK
• The casualty problem
• Legislation, regulation and
enforcement
• Driver responsibilities
• Operator/company
responsibilities
• ISO39001 and safety
management
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Road users killed or injured by an at-work
driver/rider
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The casualty situation
Commercial vehicles
involved in about 19% of
fatal collisions in 2013
This is a big issue which
has been difficult to
resolve
Vehicle
type
Percent
of total
Bus and 2
coach
Rate per
billion
veh km
26
Light
van
6
4.1
HGV
>3.5 t
11
10
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Who is responsible for work related road
safety?
• The European Union through vehicle and driver
driving time standards
• Department for Transport for road safety policy
and statistics
• The Police and the Driver and Vehicle Standards
Agency (DVSA) for enforcement and compliance
• The Health and Safety Executive for work place
safety and risk
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Europe and UK do not regulate cars and light vans
used for work
• The EU regulates commercial vehicles but the
employer still has responsibility for managing their
risks
• A company where cars and/or light vans are used
for work needs a good road safety management
structure with a written policy and clear lines of
management responsibility
• The Health and Safety Executive is responsible
for workplace safety
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Health and Safety legislation
• The Health and Safety at Work Act requires
employers to ensure the safety of their employees
whilst at work and ensure members of the public
are not put at risk by work related driving activities
• Management of Health and Safety at Work
Regulations requires employers to assess and
manage risks to employees and others.
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Some reasons given by companies for not
managing work related road safety (Source Driving
for Better Business)
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My drivers know how to handle their vehicles
Everyone has passed a driving test
Everyone has a driving license before we let them drive
I can’t influence the behaviour of people when they drive
Driving isn’t anything to do with health and safety
Driver training will fix the problem
My insurance covers the costs so why worry
Some Road Traffic Collisions are inevitable and there is
nothing I can do about that.
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Driving for Better Business
• Government recognised need to give higher
priority to work related road safety especially for
cars and vans
• Need a systematic programme which encouraged
Health and Safety practices applied to driving at
work
• A document was published by health and Safety
Executive on managing work related road safety
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg382.htm
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Managing work related road safety has many
benefits
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Fewer days lost due to injury;
Reduced risk of work-related ill health;
Reduced stress and improved morale;
Fewer incidents mean less need for investigation and
paperwork;
Less lost time due to work rescheduling;
Fewer vehicles off the road for repair;
Reduced running costs through better driving standards;
Fewer missed orders and business opportunities so
reduced risk of losing the goodwill of customers.
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Driving for Better Business – 10 essential
elements for Companies
1. Assign a senior manager
2. Incorporate Health and
Safety policy to driving
3. Do risk assessments and
act on results
4. Properly record every
incident and analyse to
prevent recurrence
5. Written guidance for
drivers
6. Vet drivers to ensure fit,
licenced competent and
well trained
7. Ensure vehicles suitable
for purpose
8. Ensure vehicles regularly
inspected and maintained
9. Is journey necessary by
car/van large HGV
10. Is journey time realistic re
speed and rest breaks
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The tendering process for good and services
• Can through the process of tendering for services
require suppliers to demonstrate they have safety
management systems in place
• An example is Crossrail in London which is
building a new railway from west to east London
• Has extensive contract requirements including for
vehicle equipment and driver training to enhance
safety
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ISO 39001 RTS management system needs
procedures and processes to built in to the
company management system
• Leadership and commitment to safety from management
• Written policies communicated and understood throughout
company with systems in place to regularly review and update
• Clear structure for responsibility and authority for safety in
company
• A set of realistic performance indicators which can be measured
• Evaluate the risks so can ensure staff well trained and
understand context in which they are operating
• Create a safety culture in the organisation e.g. drink, drugs,
fatigue, competence, which is continually monitored and
updated and in which everyone is involved
• Legal compliance
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Thank you
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