Section 4: Later Peoples of the Fertile Crescent The Big Idea Many cultures ruled parts of the Fertile Crescent. Main Ideas • Babylonians conquer Mesopotamia • Created a code of law. • Invasions changed the region’s culture. • Phoenicians built a trading society in the eastern Mediterranean region. Main Idea 1: Babylonians Conquered Mesopotamia. • King Hammurabi • Hammurabi’s code of 282 laws Hammurabi •Babylon’s king and the city’s greatest monarch: ruler of a kingdom or empire •Conquered Mesopotamia Brilliant war leader who brought all of Mesopotamia into his Babylonian Empire • Oversaw building and irrigation projects and improved the tax system • Developed a set of laws that was written down for all to see HAMMURABI: King of the Babylonia empire for 42 years. Creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world’s oldest law codes. Hammurabi’s Code • Hammurabi wrote down 282 laws which dealt with daily life and contained some ideas still found in laws today. • Specific crimes brought specific penalties. • Social class was taken into account. It was a greater crime to injure a rich man than a poor one. • It was unique not only because of how thorough it was, but also because it was written for all to see CODE OF LAW: A written set of laws that apply to everyone under a government Main Idea 2: Invasions of Mesopotamia changed the region’s culture. • Armies battled for control of fertile land. • Different peoples ruled Mesopotamia. – Hittites – Kassites – Assyrians – Chaldeans • Each group affected the culture of the region. The Hittites & Kassites The Hittites built a strong kingdom in Asia Minor. They were the first to master ironworking, so they made the strongest weapons of the time. The Hittites used a chariot. Chariot: a wheeled, horse-drawn cart, which allowed warriors to move quickly around the battlefield. They were taken over by the Kassites after their king was assassinated. The Kassites ruled for almost 400 years. The Assyrians • Assyrians: ruled a huge empire from N. Mesopotamia. (Capital=Nineveh). Strong army with chariots and iron weapons. Fierce, brutal warriors who killed any who resisted. • They spread terror before battles by looting villages and burning crops. • Assyrian kings ruled their empire through local leaders who each governed a small area. • The local leaders demanded heavy taxes. ASSYRIA: An ancient country along the Tigris in present-day Iraq. NINEVEH: An ancient city on the Tigris and the capital of Assyria AQUEDUCT: A high, arched structure built to carry water over long distances. The Chaldeans • Chaldeans: attacked the Assyrians when they were weak and destroyed Nineveh. The capital city, Babylon, was a center for astronomy. They created a calendar and solved geometry problems. • Nebuchadnezzar: Chaldean king rebuilt Babylon into a beautiful city that had the famous Hanging Gardens. • Chaldeans admired the Sumerian culture, studied their language, and built temples to Sumerian gods. BABYLON: The ancient capital of Babylonia in the 1700s B.C. BABYLONIA: An ancient Mesopotamian empire that extended along the Fertile Crescent. Main Idea 3: Phoenicians: built a wealthy trading society in the eastern Mediterranean region. Phoenicians were known for: • Cedar wood • Silver work • Ivory carvings • Glass objects • Purple dye • Inventing the alphabet Alphabet • A set of letters that can be combined to form words • Recorded their activities • Made writing much easier for everyone • Is the basis for the English language Expansion of Trade • Sailed ships around the Mediterranean Sea • Founded several new colonies along the trade routes • Became wealthy Phoenicia At the Strait of Gibraltar, 8 miles of water separate Africa from Europe. Here the Mediterranean joins the Atlantic. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization bordering the Mediterranean Sea. The Phoenicians were known for trading. In earlier times, they were known as the Philistines or “Sea Peoples. The name Phoenicia comes from the Greek word phoinix, meaning purple. Phoenicians made purple dye from the body of the murex snail. They soaked linen and wool in this dye to make expensive fabrics. Phoenicians built trading ship from cedar wood grown on their hillsides. These ships carried goods throughout the Mediterranean Sea. Phoenician sailors used the Mediterranean winds and currents to speed their voyages. “Farther than this you cannot go.” Strait of Gibraltar Treasures discovered on a sunken Phoenician trader: amber, ivory, and bronze . Phoenician merchants carried on a lively trade. Phoenician merchants traded cedar, purple dye, cloth, oil and wine... for Egyptian grain, ivory, and other goods. The Phoenicians were famous for their beautiful glass vases. Clay pots from Greece were found on Phoenician trading ships. Phoenicia fell to both Assyria and Babylon. The great city of Tyre fell to the Assyrians and Babylonians. The colony of Tyre fell to King Nebuchadnezzer of Babylon in the last quarter of the sixth century B.C. 200 years later, Tyre would fall to Alexander the Great. The Phoenicians had begun to set up colonies, so the fall of Tyre did not mean the end of the Phoenician people. A colony is a territory or community controlled by a distant government. After the fall of Tyre, Carthage became the center of Phoenician life in the west. Carthage is located in what is today Tunisia. From its central location between eastern and western Mediterranean, Carthage would rule trade for many years. Why It Matters Phoenician traders linked together many ancient civilizations through trade. They also introduced and spread a system of writing based on an alphabet we still use today.