CONDITIONAL CLAUSES
English Grammar - 4ºESO
Montse Flores Adeva & Ana Hernández Bartolomé
IES Hoces del Duratón
Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Parts
Uses
Subordinators
Types
Inversion
Ellipsis
1. Parts
They are divided into two main parts:
Protasis: if-clause  usually at the
beginning
Apodosis: main clause usually in
second position
If you phone me, I will go with you.
protasis
apodosis
2. Uses
There are 5 different uses of conditional
clauses:
1. to talk about the situation which exists
or existed sometimes.
If I met him in the street, he’d pass me by.
2. to talk about a situation which we know
that it does not exist.
If I were rich, I would travel to China.
2. Uses (cont.)
3. to talk about the situation which we do not
know whether it exists or not.
If he is right, we may have a problem.
4. to talk about the situation which may exist
in the future.
Don’t bring drinks unless I tell you.
5. to talk about situations we regret not
having done.
If I had won the lottery, I would have
travelled round the world.
3. Subordinators
• Common subordinators: if, unless,
whether
• Other subordinators: providing that,
provided that, as long as, so long as,
on condition that, suppose that,
supposing that, only if, even if, even
though, in case…
3. Subordinators (cont.)
IF
• It is used for positive conditions to
say that something is or would be the
consequence of something else
happening
• IF clause, (THEN) main clause.
If this is your last word, then I will
leave right now.
3. Subordinators (cont.)
UNLESS
• It is used for negative conditions
(a menos que) and its meaning is
similar to IF NOT.
• Main clause(,) UNLESS clause.
Don’t tell her unless you are sure
3. Subordinators (cont.)
WHETHER
• It is not replaceable by IF.
• WHETHER…OR: a situation affected by 2
or more things
• WHETHER…OR NOT: a situation affected
by either of 2 opposite situations
combination of conditional & disjuntive
meaning.
You won’t arrive on time whether you run or
go on a bicycle or go in a taxi.
He will not come to the party
whether they invite his wife or not.
3. Subordinators (cont.)
PROVIDED (THAT)
PROVIDING (THAT)
SO LONG AS
AS LONG AS
SUPPOSING (THAT)
SUPPOSE (THAT)
ON CONDITION (THAT)
• They mean ‘IF and only IF’
• They express that one situation is necessary
for another situation to take place type 1
I’ll do it provided (that) I am well paid.
Providing (that) there are no questions, we will
finish in 5 minutes.
I’ll go as long as you go with me.
4. Types
Conditional clauses can be classified
according to:
• MeaningNotional classification (open,
unlikely and impossible conditions)
• Form Structural classification.
We will study 5 groups:
– Type 0
– 3 basic types
– Mixed types
4. Types (cont.)
TYPE 0
• Also called ‘neutral type’ or
‘cause/effect’
• Universal truths or common occurrences
• Same tense in both clauses: present or
past
If you don’t water plants, they die.
If it was raining, they watched television.
4. Types (cont.)
TYPE 1
What is said in the main clause is
depending on something that may not
happen, though this “something” is
assumed by the speaker to be a real
possibility, i.e., something will happen if
a certain condition is fulfilled.
4. Types (cont.)
TYPE 1
If clause
Main clause
PRESENT
FUTURE: WILL / SHALL
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT MODAL AUXILIARY
If you go to Turkey, you will learn Turkish.
If you find her, give me a ring.
If you know Paris, you must know the Eiffel Tower.
4. Types (cont.)
TYPE 2
What is said in the main clause is an imaginary
consequence of a present non-fact.
If clause
Main clause
PAST SIMPLE
(subjunctive)
CONDITIONAL (WOULD)
PAST MODAL AUXILIARY
If I were you, I wouldn’t open that door.
If we caught the 8 o’clock bus, we might arrive on time.
4. Types (cont.)
TYPE 3
What is said in the main clause is now seen as
an imaginary consequence of a past (non)-fact
stated in the if-clause.
If clause
Main clause
PAST PERFECT
PAST CONDITIONAL
PAST MODAL AUX.+PERFECT INF.
If you had parked your car here, they wouldn’t have towed it away.
If we had caught the 8 o’clock bus, we might have arrived on time.
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CONDITIONAL CLAUSES - ies hoces del duratón