CONDITIONAL CLAUSES English Grammar - 4ºESO Montse Flores Adeva & Ana Hernández Bartolomé IES Hoces del Duratón Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Parts Uses Subordinators Types Inversion Ellipsis 1. Parts They are divided into two main parts: Protasis: if-clause usually at the beginning Apodosis: main clause usually in second position If you phone me, I will go with you. protasis apodosis 2. Uses There are 5 different uses of conditional clauses: 1. to talk about the situation which exists or existed sometimes. If I met him in the street, he’d pass me by. 2. to talk about a situation which we know that it does not exist. If I were rich, I would travel to China. 2. Uses (cont.) 3. to talk about the situation which we do not know whether it exists or not. If he is right, we may have a problem. 4. to talk about the situation which may exist in the future. Don’t bring drinks unless I tell you. 5. to talk about situations we regret not having done. If I had won the lottery, I would have travelled round the world. 3. Subordinators • Common subordinators: if, unless, whether • Other subordinators: providing that, provided that, as long as, so long as, on condition that, suppose that, supposing that, only if, even if, even though, in case… 3. Subordinators (cont.) IF • It is used for positive conditions to say that something is or would be the consequence of something else happening • IF clause, (THEN) main clause. If this is your last word, then I will leave right now. 3. Subordinators (cont.) UNLESS • It is used for negative conditions (a menos que) and its meaning is similar to IF NOT. • Main clause(,) UNLESS clause. Don’t tell her unless you are sure 3. Subordinators (cont.) WHETHER • It is not replaceable by IF. • WHETHER…OR: a situation affected by 2 or more things • WHETHER…OR NOT: a situation affected by either of 2 opposite situations combination of conditional & disjuntive meaning. You won’t arrive on time whether you run or go on a bicycle or go in a taxi. He will not come to the party whether they invite his wife or not. 3. Subordinators (cont.) PROVIDED (THAT) PROVIDING (THAT) SO LONG AS AS LONG AS SUPPOSING (THAT) SUPPOSE (THAT) ON CONDITION (THAT) • They mean ‘IF and only IF’ • They express that one situation is necessary for another situation to take place type 1 I’ll do it provided (that) I am well paid. Providing (that) there are no questions, we will finish in 5 minutes. I’ll go as long as you go with me. 4. Types Conditional clauses can be classified according to: • MeaningNotional classification (open, unlikely and impossible conditions) • Form Structural classification. We will study 5 groups: – Type 0 – 3 basic types – Mixed types 4. Types (cont.) TYPE 0 • Also called ‘neutral type’ or ‘cause/effect’ • Universal truths or common occurrences • Same tense in both clauses: present or past If you don’t water plants, they die. If it was raining, they watched television. 4. Types (cont.) TYPE 1 What is said in the main clause is depending on something that may not happen, though this “something” is assumed by the speaker to be a real possibility, i.e., something will happen if a certain condition is fulfilled. 4. Types (cont.) TYPE 1 If clause Main clause PRESENT FUTURE: WILL / SHALL IMPERATIVE PRESENT MODAL AUXILIARY If you go to Turkey, you will learn Turkish. If you find her, give me a ring. If you know Paris, you must know the Eiffel Tower. 4. Types (cont.) TYPE 2 What is said in the main clause is an imaginary consequence of a present non-fact. If clause Main clause PAST SIMPLE (subjunctive) CONDITIONAL (WOULD) PAST MODAL AUXILIARY If I were you, I wouldn’t open that door. If we caught the 8 o’clock bus, we might arrive on time. 4. Types (cont.) TYPE 3 What is said in the main clause is now seen as an imaginary consequence of a past (non)-fact stated in the if-clause. If clause Main clause PAST PERFECT PAST CONDITIONAL PAST MODAL AUX.+PERFECT INF. If you had parked your car here, they wouldn’t have towed it away. If we had caught the 8 o’clock bus, we might have arrived on time.