‘RATNAMUNI’
BY
KS MANIAM
SUMMARY/PLOT
NARRATOR
SETTING
CHARACTERS AND CHARACTERISTICS
MOOD AND ATMOSPHERE
LANGUAGE PROSE
THEMES AND SOCIETAL CONCERNS
•
Muniandy, a poor labourer who emigrates from India to Malaya.
• A sad tragedy has happened in his life, where his wife, Malini has
committed suicide.
• He becomes depress as he could not understand why his wife killed
herself.
• Muniandy starts drinking and neglects his only son, Ratnam.
• He has the spiritualist power which he owns through his “uduku”, a
special drum used by Hindu’s for their spiritual use.
• He finally knows why his wife committed suicide.
• Malini feels guilty towards Muniandy and for keeping the truth from
him-raped by Muthiah and that Ratnam is not his biological son.
• Results to the murder of Muthiah.
Introduction
• Arrival of Muniandy in Malaya from
India and he only brings his
‘uduku’(beggar bundle).
• ‘Uduku’ is important in his life-links
him to his homeland.
Rising
Action
• Muniandy is eager to have a child.
• Muthiah, their bookworm neighbour is
introduced.
• The birth of Ratnam (son) and the death
of Malini (wife). –suspense.
• Muniandy becomes depressed.
Climax
• The truth behind Malini’s death
is revealed-raped by Muthiah.
• Ratnam is Muthiah’s son.
Falling
Action
Resolution
• Muniandy kills Muthiah
with the help of his son,
Ratnam.
• Muniandy surrenders to
police.
• He lost everything at the
end.
)
CHARACTERS AND CHARACTERISTICS
LOVING
MUNIANDY
e.g : “I made my wife a queen. No
cooking, no sweeping of the
house, no washing of the clothes.”
(pg 39)
GENEROUS
e.g : “He takes care of
people by doing a little
charity (giving yellow rice
balls to the children in his
neighborhood ..(pg 38)
IRRESPONSIBLE
RATNAM
E.g: Even though he has
married, he still depends on his
father to take care of his welfare
such as he always asks money
from his father to pay his debts
UNEDUCATED
e.g: He is an educated person. He
cannot write and read as he
questioned his father (Muniandy)
why he is not sent to school.
(Pg 48 & 49)
HOT-TEMPERED
MUTHIAH
E.g: He is shouting at all the
workers who stand at his table to get
their money every month
BOOK WORM
e.g He always seem to have his
nose in a book, studying to be a
clerk (pg 37)
• First person point of view.
• Example: “On the way I will be destroyed but I
must be ready to become nothing”
(Pg 47, line 3)
WHY?
To make the story becomes more real
SETTING
PLACE
TIME
SOCIAL
• Set in Bedong, Kedah
• e.g: “This Bedong I stay all my
life I did not come straight” (pg 34
line 1)
• Before independence
• e.g: “Ma-la-ya I was hearing all
the time.”(pg 34 line 2)
• Indian immigrants who are still practicing
the tradition and culture of their
homeland
• e.g: “knocking her head on my toes
every morning.” (pg 36 line 6)
• Malini wears phootu on her forehead
MUNIANDY WITH HIS
UDUKU
MALINI WITH HER
PHOOTU ON HER
FOREHEAD
MOOD
SUSPENSE
e.g:- The reason of Malini’s death is not revealed by the author
until the end of the story
 OPPRESSIVE
-e.g:- “You are not paid to chew off the grass like a cow!”
- (pg 51 line 2)

ATMOSPHERE
e.g :- “ She NEVER saw the SUN at the mid day”
Sun = bright, happy and pleasant
- Unhappy feeling, sad and sorrow.
ASPECTS
Nativization
Dialogue
Harsh words
EXAMPLES
 Uduku
 Thoornooru
 Mayam
 Kerani
 Bomoh
 Gantang
Indian
REASONS
To localized the context
and to make this story
relevant to Malaysian
society
Malay
Govindan tells me“ You
were making him into an
animal’’.
“ A thinking animal”, I tell
him.
 Scavenger’s son
 Barren bull
 Wife – killer
 a deaf idiot
To help readers for a
better understanding
about the story
To highlight the element
of oppression in the story
Conflicts that Indian immigrants undergo
as they attempt to transplant an
uprooted culture in the new land.
 Conflict within himself
 Conflict with family
 Conflict with society
•
Oppression of low class society
Muthiah always insult and look down his workers
•
Immigrants attempt to retain their culture in
the new land.
UDUKU
For example:
“ When I was coming here-nothing. Only her-the uduku” (pg 34 line 3)
MALINI
Malini links Muniandy with his homeland as she always performs the custom
of Big Country in their house
For example: When my wife bent over me in the mornings.. I was too happy
to see the custom from the Big Country still used in my house (pg 54 line 1)
THANK YOU