```Unit 1: Scientific Method
1. Random – every subject has an equal chance
of being in the sample.
Stratified-each subgroup is represented in
the sample.
Necessary to ensure the sample is
representative of the whole group under
study.
2. She only got 4% returned. This is too small a
group to represent the whole. Maybe only
those women who were unhappy bothered
to take the time to do the survey.
5. Correlation
6. If both sets of data increase or decrease
together, it is positive. If one increases as the
other decreases, it is negative.
7. The closer the number (the correlation
coefficient) is to 1.0, the stronger the
relationship, because 1.0 is a perfect
correlational relationship.
8. They don’t prove that one thing causes the
other.
Ex. Students who eat breakfast, get better
grades. This doesn’t necessarily mean that
eating breakfast causes the good grades.
Maybe it’s because organized students have
time to eat and time to study so they do
better.
9. A prediction about the relationship of two or
more things.
10. IV is the one the researcher controls.
DV is the one that will change depending on
the IV (the one the researcher wants to
measure).
The control group is treated exactly the same
as the experimental group except they don’t
get the IV.
11. Hyp: Watching violent TV programs will make children
more violent.
IV: the violent TV show.
DV: the amount of violent acts the children commit.
Control group is a part of my randomly selected sample that
will be treated exactly the same as the experimental
group except they won’t see the violent show, so they will
watch a non-violent show.
The control group is necessary so that if the children in the
exp group do show more acts of violence, I will know that
it is a result of the type of TV that they watched and not
something else (b/c nothing else was different).
12. Single blind- the subject doesn’t know if
they are receiving the experimental
treatment, but the researcher does know.
Double blind- neither subject nor researcher
knows.
13. There is a change in the subject, but the
change is not a result of the experimental
treatment b/c they didn’t receive it. They
received a placebo which resembles the
treatment but has no medical effects.
14. To see if people would administer a
potentially fatal shock to another person if an
authority figure told them to. He told them it
was to test the effects of punishment on
learning. The subject thought they were
giving electric shocks to a learner who
pretended to be in pain. He found 65% of
people would. (%88 college age)
15. A horse. His trainer thought he had taught
him to do math. The horse was actually
conditioned to respond to subtle changes in
the trainer’s body and demeanour. Selffufilling prophecy b/c the trainer did
something (unintentionally) that influenced
the outcome.
16. B/c it means the results are not due to
chance.
17. A bell curve
18. Mean is 14.29, median is 10, mode is 5,
range is 25.
19. Mode is easy to eyeball, and median as
well.
20. The average distance of every score to the
mean.
21. Graphs, lists, averages
22. Getting the parent’s consent, debriefing
afterwards and sharing the results of the
study, maintaining confidentiality, not
harming the children psychologically so the
violence would have to be suitable for kids.
23. If the statement is just the facts it is
objective, if it contains a conclusion or guess
about what is occurring then it makes an
inference.
• 24. False
• 25. Validity – If the experiment measures what
it sets out to measure.
• Reliability – If the results can be trusted. If
repeated by someone else, they will get the
same results.
•
•
•
•
26. Ask who subjects were and how selected
Seeing isn’t always believing
Correlation doesn’t equal causation
Question data obtained without the scientific
method
• Remember the power of the placebo
• Until results repeated, keep an open mind
• Be ready to be proven wrong
• 28. Case study – Leonard (used other methods
like experiments and interviews.
• Observation (of Lucy and others catching things,
the man who watched the non-tracking TV).
• Experiments (throwing the ball, painting the
floor, playing music, giving the drug L-Dopa, the
ouija board, the EEG).
• Interviews (the old doctor, Leonard’s mom,
Leonard, the chemist who invented L-Dopa)
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