Economic Engagement
USING ECONOMIC TOOLS
TO BUILD RELATIONSHIPS
2012-13 Debate Resolution
RESOLVED:
THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT SHOULD SUBSTANTIALLY
INCREASE ITS ECONOMIC ENGAGEMENT
TOWARD CUBA, MEXICO, OR VENEZUELA
QUIZ: WHEN WERE THE OTHER TIMES
THAT LATIN AMERICA HAS BEEN
DEBATED?
ANSWER: 1987-88 POLITICAL STABILITY
1994-95 IMMIGRATION
Implications of topic wording
 USFG must be the actor
and determiner of
economic engagement
 Question:
 What are the current
policies that the USFG
has towards these
countries?
 Must know that first
Current policies are like the three bears
 Cuba
 “Papa Bear” (too hard)
 No economic
engagement now
 Embargo since the mid-
”60’s
Policy as the the three bears
 Venezuela
 “Mama bear” (too soft)
 Some engagement,
especially with oil
 With the passing of Hugo
Chavez, some shifting
will take place
Policy as the three bears
 Mexico
 “Baby bear” (Just right)
 Although domestically
we have issues, tied
directly with Mexico
 Open to significant
relationships
What is included in economic engagement?
 We could define both “economic” and “engagement”
 Why would that not be the best approach?
 Answer: Very broad; would allow for a very large
topic and not exclude much of anything
 Best is a contextual definition
 One that would include “positive incentives to
achieve an objective”
What does economic engagement include
 Haas & Sullivan with the Brookings Institute in 2000
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argued that economic engagement included the
following:
Export credits
Investment insurance or promotion
Access to technology
Loans and economic aid
Removal of penalties such as embargoes, investment
bans, high tariffs
Facilitate entry into global economic arena and
institutions
Economic engagement
 Arda Celik, professor of international relations at
Uppsala University in 2011 book Economic
Sanctions and Engagement Policies defined as
follows:
 The purpose of economic engagement is to “deepen
the economic intersection, interconnectedness and
mutual dependence and finally seeks economic
interdependence. This interdependence serves the
sender state to change the political behavior of target
state.”
Other types of engagement
 Political
engagement
 Diplomatic recognition
 Access to regional or
international institutions
 Summits between
leaders
 Commercial interests
that include people to
people; humanitarian
concerns; historical ties
(extra topical?)
Other types of engagement
 Military
engagements
 Extension of military or
educational training
 Human rights among
armed services
 Establish relationships
between US and other
foreign military officers
 Arms exchanges; offering
security services
Other considerations
ALTHOUGH THE TOPIC
REQUIRES USFG ACTION,
IT DOES NOT SPECIFY
ACTION WITH THE
GOVERNMENTS OF THE
TARGET COUNTRIES
Learn the Latin America alphabet

 NAFTA
 ALBA
 North America
 Bolivarian
Free Trade
Agreement-Agreement
between Canada,
US, and Mexico
Alternative for the
Americas-Member
countries includes
Venezuela, Cuba,
Bolivia, Nicaragua,
and island countries
in the Bahamas
Latin America Alphabet
 CELAC
 FTAA
 Community of Latin
 Free Trade Area of
American and
Caribbean StatesFounded in 2011,
includes 33 countries,
but excludes the US &
Canada Founded as an
alternative to the OAS
the Americas
Proposed agreement
to expand to all of the
nations in the
Western Hemisphere
excluding Cuba.
Opposed by members
of ALBA
Possible Affirmative Advantages
 Hegemony
 Oil dependency
 Could defend an increase
 Energy development of
or decrease in US
leadership and/or
influence; improved
relations with various
countries would increase
soft power
any one of the three
countries would help
with decreasing
dependence on Middle
East sources
Possible affirmative advantage areas
 Economic growth
 Solving social issues
 Improving conditions in
any of these countries
would be beneficial to
both the country and the
US in terms of opening
new markets, allowing
for corporate expansions,
and developing local
economies
 Increased engagement
would lead to addressing
other issues such as
immigration, health care,
trafficking in humans
and drugs, and nuclear
proliferation
Have fun with these countries
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Economic Engagement Powerpoint