The End of the Republic
Chapter 11.3
Tennessee State Standards
6.64 Describe the influence of Julius Caesar and Augustus in Rome’s
transition from a republic to an empire and explain the reasons for the
growth and long life of the Roman Empire. (C, E, G, H, P) · Military
organization, tactics, and conquests and decentralized administration · the
purpose and functions of taxes · the promotion of economic growth through
the use of a standard currency, road construction, and the protection of
trade routes · the benefits of a Pax Romana
6.65 Reflect on the impact of the lives of Cleopatra, Marc Anthony, Nero,
Diocletian, and Constantine, city of Constantinople on the Roman Empire.
(H, P)
6.71 Explain the spread and influence of the Roman alphabet and the Latin
language, the use of Latin as the language of education for more than 1,000
years, and the role of Latin and Greek in scientific and academic
vocabulary. (C, H, G)
6.72 Compare and contrast the Roman gods and goddesses to the Greek
gods and goddesses, including Jupiter, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Neptune,
Saturn, Pluto, and Hera and their inclusion in modern society.
Problems in the Republic
• Republic faced
many economic
– Gap between rich
and poor grew
– Farmers faced
financial ruin
– Cities were
overcrowded and
It appears the republic really
is falling!!!!!!!
Romans-Rich and Poor
• Most Romans were plebeians
• Power was held by the patricians
• Farmers fell into poverty
Farmers neglected fields while fighting wars
Some farms were destroyed by the Carthaginians
Farmers could not pay back loans
Small farms were pushed out of business
Thousands of poor unemployed moved to the cities
looking for jobs
– To prevent a revolt, leaders offered policy of “bread
and circuses” which was cheap food and free
Roman Reformers
• Tiberius and Gaius
• Thought problems were
caused by rich
– Urged the Senate to take
some land from rich and
return it to the poor
– Senate disagreed
– Senators killed Tiberius and
– People who made laws-broke
Roman Politics and the Army
• Marius
– Military general became
– Plebian
– Recruited poor for army
and paid them wages
– Plan weakened
• Soldiers were more loyal to
generals than republic
• Generals passed laws that
gave land to soldiers
• Marius was opposed by Sulla
– Sulla drove his enemies out of
– Named himself dictator
– First time ever a general led his
army into capital
– Reduced power of tribunes
– Gave senators more power
– Sulla stepped down as dictator
– Started a conflict that lasted 50
The Rise of Julius Caesar
• After Sulla, 3 men ruled the Republic
– Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar
– Formed the First Triumvirate to rule Rome
– A Triumvirate is a political group of 3 people
who share equal power
Caesar’s Conquests
Each Triumvirate member commanded a military
Pompey led in Spain
Crassus in Syria
Caesar in Gaul-France and Belgium
– Poor supported Caesar
– Senators feared Caesar was becoming to popular
First Triumvirate
• First Triumvirate no
longer existed
– Crassus had died in
– Pompey emerges as
Caesar’s main rival
– Senate supported
– Ordered Caesar to
give up army
– Caesar refused
Caesar crossing Rubicon
• Caesar gathered troops and crossed
Rubicon River
• Refused to obey the Senate
• Marching on Rome
• Started a civil war
• Captured all of Italy
• Drove Pompey’s forces out
Caesar Takes Power
• Caesar took over the Roman Government
• Declared himself dictator for life
• Introduced reforms
– Became popular with poor
– Gave citizenship to people
– Ordered landowners to hire free workers
Julian Calendar
• Caesar
– 12 months
– 365 days
– Became known
as Julian
– Used until A.D.
• Many Romans praised
Caesar as a wise ruler
– Brought peace and good
government to Rome
– Senators Brutus and
Cassius plotted to kill him
– On March 15, 44 B.C.
Caesar’s opponents
gathered around him and
stabbed him
– Became known as the
“Ides of March”
Julius Caesar
• Caesar’s murder was made famous in the
play “Julius Caesar” by William
Shakespeare. In play, Caesar was warned
to “Beware the Ides of March”
From Republic to Empire
• After Caesar’s death, civil war broke out
• Caesar’s 18-year old grandnephew
Octavian joined Mark Antony and Marcus
• This was the Second Triumvirate
Second Triumvirate
• Divided the Roman Empire
– Octavian took Italy and the west
– Antony ruled in Greece and the east
– Lepidus took North Africa
Antony and Cleopatra
• Second Triumvirate did not last
– Lepidus retired from politics
– Octavian and Antony became rivals
Antony and Cleopatra
• Antony fell in love with
• Together they formed
an alliance
• Octavian accused
Antony and Cleopatra
of plotting against
• Octavian declared war
on Antony
Octavian and Antony
• Octavian and Antony’s
navies clashed off the
coast of Greece
• At the Battle of Actium
– Octavian defeated Antony
and Cleopatra
– Octavian captured
Alexandria, Egypt
– Antony and Cleopatra
killed themselves to avoid
being captured by
Octavian-a New Direction
• Octavian became the supreme ruler of
• Civil war ended and so did the Roman
• Cicero
– Political leader
– Supported the representative government
– Died before Octavian rose to power
– Influenced the writers of the United States
• Octavian became consul, tribune, and
commander-in-chief for life
• Took the title Augustus or “the majestic
• Caesar Augustus became the first
emperor, or all-powerful ruler