Chapter 13 Section 1
Main Idea: The Civil War took a huge
physical and human toll on the South.
1. War had destroyed 2/3 of Southern
shipping and 9,000 miles of railroad
2. South lost 1/5 of its adult white men
3. Countless civilian death
4. Result in the South being left in ruins
Main Idea: Three major groups of
people faced hardships and fears.
1. Black southerners often found
themselves homeless, jobless and hungry
2. Plantation owners lost slave labor, faced
property seizure by the federal gov’t and
often had to sell their property to cover
debt
3. Poor white southerners often could not
find work and many migrated to frontier
land
Main Idea: Identify the 4 proposals in
Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan for
Reconstruction.
1. It offered a pardon, an official forgiveness of a
crime, to any Confederate who would take an
oath of allegiance to the Union and accept
federal policy on slavery
2. It denied pardons to all Confederate military
and government officials and to southerners who
had killed African American war prisoners.
3. It permitted each state to hold a constitutional
convention only after 10 percent of voters in the
state had sworn allegiance to the Union
4. States could then hold elections and resume
full participation in the Union.
Main Idea: Identify the 4 provisions in
Johnson’s Presidential Reconstruction.
1. It pardoned southerners who swore allegiance
to the Union.
2. It permitted each state to hold a constitutional
convention (without Lincoln’s percent allegiance
requirement)
3. States were required to void secession, abolish
slavery, and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment
4. States could then hold elections and resume
participation in the Union.
Main Idea: Newly freed slaves began
rebuilding their lives, and the government
helped them.
1. African Americans in the South set up
their own churches
2. African Americans pursued an education,
especially to learn to read
3. Congress created Freedmen’s Bureau to
provide food, medicine, and other relief to
African Americans
Reconstruction
1. Define Reconstruction: Federal gov’t effort
between 1865 to 1877 to repair the damage to
the South caused by the Civil War and to
restore southern states to the Union.
Relation: Johnson devised a plan to repair the
South and restore southern states to the Union
that was more generous than Lincoln’s
Pardon
2. Define Pardon: an official forgiveness of
a crime
Relation: Johnson issued a score of these
to southern officials and other
confederates