From Slavery to Emancipation:
The Civil War was not
originally about freeing the
“If I could save the Union by
keeping slavery, I would. If I
could save the Union by
freeing slaves, I would. My
goal is to save the Union”
Fighting for freedom became
a primary goal
Learning Target
Using your Chapter 22 Reading Guide and
lecture notes, analyze multiple strengths
and weaknesses of the Reconstruction effort
by the North and South during the years
following the Civil War.
African Americans Are Free!!!,
sort of…
Lincoln issues the Emancipation
Frees slaves in the Southern
States, which he does not have the
power to do
Does not free the slaves in the
border states, even though he
would have the power to do so
Needs the Border States for
Slavery is Dead?
Extensive Legislation Passed
Without the South in Congress
1861 – Morrill Tariff Act
1862 – Homestead Act
1862 – Morrill Land Grant Act
1862 – Emancipation Proclamation
1863 – Pacific Railway Act
1863 – National Bank Act
Key Questions
1. How do we
bring the South
back into the
2. How do we
rebuild the
South after its
during the war?
4. What branch
of government
should control
the process of
3. How do we
integrate and
protect newlyemancipated
black freedmen?
Wartime Reconstruction
Lincoln/Johnson vs Radical Republicans
10% Plan
10 % + Plan
Radical Republican Congress
Accomplishments of the Radical
Republicans in Congress
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865)
Radicals in Congress created in 1865 to
help ex-slaves (early welfare agency)
Gave food, clothing, medical care, &
education for blacks and white refugees
Educated 200,00 African Americans to
Called “carpetbaggers” by white
southern Democrats.
New Rights for African Americans
13th,14th, and 15th
Amendments gave African
Americans new rights
African Americans
became citizens, slavery
was outlawed, the right to
vote, the right to public
accommodations (hotels
and trains)
Shortly after the war,
Grant became President.
He won by 300,000 votes,
of which 700,000 African
Americans voted for him
• Blacks eagerly set up their own
schools, churches, and businesses
• Two Senators, 20 Congressmen,
hundreds of State Legislators
 Ratified in December, 1865.
 Neither slavery nor involuntary
servitude, except as punishment for
crime whereof the party shall have been
duly convicted, shall exist within the
United States or any place subject to
their jurisdiction (abolished slavery).
 Congress shall have power to enforce
this article by appropriate legislation.
14th Amendment
 Ratified in July, 1868.
Equal rights among all citizens of our
It is illegal to discriminate
15th Amendment
 African American males now have the
right to vote – sort of.
Provides the opportunity for states to make
their own voting regulations
Poll tax
Literacy tests
Grandfather Clauses
Must own property
Radical Reconstruction Acts of 1867
Tenure of Office Act
The President could not
any officials [esp. Cabinet
members] without the Senate’s
consent, if the position
originally required Senate
Designed to protect radical
members of Lincoln’s
Radicals Impeach President Johnson
11 week
agreed to
stop fighting
Radicals if he
could stay in
35 to 19
short of
Group Question
# 3 How did the white South’s
uncompromising spirit and President
Johnson’s political bungling open the way
for the Congressional Republican program
of Military Reconstruction?
Radical Reconstruction Acts of 1867
Military Reconstruction Act
Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states
that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment.
 Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5
military districts.
Reconstruction Comes to an End
1873 Economic Depression
1874 Democrats become majority party in House
of Representatives (southern pop grew due to exslaves counted in pop)
Republicans Control the Senate
1876 Samuel J. Tilden (Dem) and Rutherford B.
Hayes (Rep) both claim victory in presidential
Compromise of 1877 Hayes becomes president if
he removes remaining troops from the South to
Compromise of 1877
Group Question
# 4 What was the purpose of Congressional
Reconstruction, and what were it’s actual
effects on the South?
Black Codes
Guarantee stable subservient
cheap labor supply now that
blacks were emancipated.
Restore pre-emancipation
system of race relations.
Blacks couldn’t serve on a
jury, rent or lease land, and
couldn’t be idle.
Forced many blacks to
become sharecroppers
No money, no land
rent is paid by working someone else’s
land and paying with crops
At harvest time,
sharecroppers cannot cover their debt
cannot leave the farm until debt is paid
• Jim Crow was the name of a song and
dance performer
• A white man who put on black face and
then acted “black” It was a very popular
show for decades
• Jim Crow laws were laws that
discriminated against AA’s
• Segregation in housing, schooling, and
public facilities (transportation, hospitals,
trains, etc.)
Segregation – separating
on the basis of race
Impact of 1896 landmark
Supreme Court Case Plessy v
African Americans had
separate schools,
transportation, restaurants,
and parks, many of which
were poorly funded and
inferior to those of whites.
Belzoni, Mississippi Delta, Mississippi
Roadblocks to Integration
Intense racism
New rules went largely
unenforced by State
and Federal
Emergence and
acceptance of the Ku
Klux Klan (KKK)
African Americans in the early 1900s: “I am tired of being
poor. I am tired of being lynched. I am tired of the South.
I am going to move North!
This movement of African Americans became known as the “Great Migration.”
Many African Americans headed towards New York and in time started a cultural
movement called the Harlem Renaissance.
Group Question
•# 5 Why did Reconstruction apparently fail
so badly? Was the failure primarily one of
immediate political circumstances, or was it
more deeply rooted in the history of American
sectional and race relations?