The Road to War:
Renewed Conflict with
England & France
The Embargo of 1807
 When England & France resumed
war in 1803 & violated U.S.
neutrality, Jefferson approved the
unpopular Embargo of 1807
 To enforce the embargo, Jefferson
contradicted his principles of
individual liberty & weak gov’t:
– He mobilized the military to
enforce the blockade
– He declared regions of NY (near
Canada) in a state of insurrection
"NeverThe
did aEmbargo
prisoner, released
from his
of 1807
chains,
feel
such
relief
as
I
shall
on
For
15
months
the
embargo
shaking off the shackles of power.'‘—TJ
proved ineffective; Congress
repealed the embargo in 1809
The
embargo
gained
no
political
Jefferson’s decision to not run for
concessions from France or Britain
a third term meant that these
But itproblems
produced economic
hardship,
evasion
of
fell
to
his
hand-picked
the law, & political dissension in America
successor, James Madison
Congress repealed the embargo
In 1808,
Madison
was
just 3 days
Jefferson
leftelected
office
president & the Republicans
maintained control of the gov’t
The Road to the War of 1812
…but England
Madison
eagerly

The focus
of Madison’s
presidency
continued
to
seize
reopened
trade
was foreign policy:U.S. ships
with England
– In 1809, the Non-Intercourse Act
promised
the U.S.
France agreed
to endwill
all resume
trade
restrictions
(but never&stopped
trade
with England
France
seizing
ships
or
impressing
sailors)
once U.S. neutrality is respected
– In 1810, Congress replaced this
with Macon’s Bill #2 offering
exclusive trade to whichever
nation 1st honored U.S. neutrality
Which region
would
have
supported
athe
Patriotism
surged
as
War
Hawks
claimed
Madison
eventually
gave
in
&
Americans
in
the
West
&
declaration
of war
the most?
War of 1812
the “Second
American
Revolution”
South
wanted
war to gain
asked
Congress
for a declaration
Canada & Spanish
of war Florida
in June 1812
NE Federalists thought war
withMost
Britain
as for
a mistake:
calls
war centered on British
they feared
the U.S.
could
interference
with
U.S. trade rights.
not defeat
a war Rights" was a
"FreeEngland
Trade &&Sailors'
would bankruptpopular
the country
battle cry
By 1810, War Hawks in Congress, led by
Henry Clay (KY) & John C. Calhoun (SC),
demanded war with England
The War of 1812
War
The U.S. did
not of
fare1812
well against
the better-trained
British
troops the
Despite
increased
patriotism,
waswas
unprepared
war:
The U.S.
U.S. navy
a little morefor
successful
but only
because the
bulk of to
British
– Congress
refused
raisenavy
taxes
was still fighting Napoleon in Europe
– The
army was small & state
militias were inadequate
– The government was incapable
of directing a full-scale war
The U.S. goal for the war was to
attack British Canada & force
England to respect U.S. rights
The American army under Andrew Jackson
defeated the British at New Orleans (after a
peace treaty was drawn up ending the war)
The War
of 1812
In 1814,
the British
British
were
turned
back
at
Plattsburg
on Lake
The British attacked
the
undefended
took
the
offensive
in
a
Champlain
&
gave
up
their
Canadian
offensive
Chesapeake & burned Washington, DC
3-pronged attack
& laid siege to Baltimore
Hartford Convention
The War of 1812
In order to reduce southern
is still
going
on!!
Federalists opposed
the
war
by
control of Congress
not paying taxes or sending troops
In order to break the Virginia
In 1814, Federalists
met
at
the
presidential dynasty
Hartford Convention to discuss
altering the U.S. Constitution to:
– Restrict Congress’ war powers
– Supported a one-term president
– Abolish the 3/5 clause
They discussed seceding from the
USA if they did not get their way
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent did not address
U.S. neutrality but was ratified
unanimously by the Senate
Spain ceded Florida to the USA
Effects of the war:
– Ended all Indian-British
alliances in western lands
– Scared Spain into signing the
Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819
– The lack of Federalist loyalty
was the fatal blow to the party
Effects of the War of 1812
 Though the US might not have gained any lands
or major concessions from the war, the War of
1812 did have a number of significant effects on
the young nation…
– The US gained incredible respect from foreign
nations for fighting the world’s greatest power,
England, to two stalemates
– There was an incredible growth in nationalistic
feelings across the US, especially in the west
– The idea that the future of the US lay in
westward expansion
– The death of the Federalist party