French and Indian War
Objective #1
– Trace the growth of a North American rivalry
between England and France through the
colonial wars, including the Seven Years’ War
and culminating in the Treaty of Paris (1763).
Objective #2
• Explain how the series of wars with
France helped foster greater unity
among the British colonies.
Objective #3
• Explain how the North American political
and military events were affected by
developments on the larger European
stage.
Objective #4
• Explain how and why the French and
Indian War became one of the causes
of the American Revolution.
Anglo-French Rivalry
• France established “New France” from
Hudson Bay to Gulf of Mexico; Appalachian
Mountains to Rocky Mts.
• Jolliette and Marquette explored Mississippi
and Missouri Rivers
• Rene Robert de LaSalle made it to Gulf of
Mexico (canoeing down Miss. R.)
• England saw Catholic New France as a
challenge to their mission and economic
competition
North America in 1750
French and English Clash
• King William’s War (1689-97)
• Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713)
– Peace of Utrecht (1713)
• European war spilled into colonies
• Native Americans mostly sided with French-fur trade, better treatment
• Fighting meant higher taxes and inflation in
colonies
• Led to decades of salutary neglect
Westward Expansion
• Despite population growth, English
colonies confined to east of Appalachian
Mountains
• Need for more land
• England coveted the Ohio Valley
The Ohio Valley in 1750s
Changes for Native Americans
• European contact meant:
– European weaponry and acculturation
changed purpose of hunting (survival to
riches)
– Intensified tribal warfare
– Increased frustration with colonists
French Goals for colonization
• Connect Canada with Gulf of Mexico
• Keep English colonists pinned against
coast
• “New France” still the goal
• French set up military outposts in Ohio
River Valley to halt English movement
westward
Importance of New Orleans
• Miss R. runs into Gulf of Mexico
• Control of New Orleans is paramount
• Growth of plantation slavery in N.O.
England needs Money
• Glorious Revolution, war in Europe left
England economically hurting
• Want colonists to help pay fair share
(mercantilism)
• Tougher enforcement of Navigation Acts
• Limits on foreign trade
• Molasses Act of 1733
English colonists move west
• Colonists begin moving
westward
• Challenge to French
interests
• 1754: Lt. Col. George
Washington sent to
expel French out of Ft.
Duquesne
• Loss meant unofficial
war with France
Albany Plan of Union (1754)
• Bring colonies together for
defense
• Only 7 of 13 attend
• Tried to influence Natives to
side with them
• Bolster unity and defend
itself against France
• Albany Plan was
unanimously approved by
delegates
• Individual colonies and
Britain rejected the plan
1755: Ft. Duquesne, pt. II
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• General Edward
Braddock
(w/Washington) attacks
and loses again
• Braddock was
commander of all
English troops
• Braddock dies
• England formally
declares war on France
in 1756
Early in the war
• France dominated first 2 years
• Native Americans sided with France
– Braddock’s death and England’s losses
motivated Native Americans
• England attempted to unionize to fight
with formation of Albany Congress
William Pitt
• Becomes prime minister
in 1757
• 40,000 troops sent to
colonies
• Goal: Conquer Canada
and expel French
• 1758: Capture St.
Lawrence River
• Iroquois form alliance
with England
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Battle of Quebec (1759)
• English captures
Montreal in 1760
• Natives bailing on
French
• War effectively over
by 1760 in colonies
• Treaty of Paris
(1763) ends war
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Treaty of Paris (1763)
• France cedes Canada and all territory
east of Mississippi River
• France gave Louisiana to Spain to
compensate them for their alliance
during the war.
• Spain gives Florida to England
North America in 1763
Proclamation of 1763
• Ottawa Chief Pontiac attacks English
outposts in Detroit
• Concern over control of colonists if they
spread out
• Proc. Of 1763: land west of Appalachian
Mountains reserved for Native Americans
• No settlers west of Appalachian Mountains
Results of French and Indian
War
• Strengthened colonial economy and
confidence
• Heavy taxes and human toll
• War trained military and political leaders of
American Revolution
• No longer needed English protection
• Barriers against unity begin to be removed
• Colonists wanted rights of Englishmen but not
the duties or responsibilities
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French and Indian War - Madeira City Schools