Indigenous Movements &
Mobilization
Ecuador and Bolivia
Ecuador: Naciones y Pueblos
Highlands
 Quichua nationality
(95% of indigenous pop.)
◦ 16 pueblos
Amazon
 10 nationalities
(ethno-linguistic groups)
Coast
 6 nationalities
Bolivian Indigenous Groups
Aymara (25% pop.)
 Altiplano (high plains)
 Ayullus
Quechua (30% pop.)
 Temperate valleys –
Cochabamba
 Historically greater
subordination to haciendas
Amazonian Peoples
 30 ethno-linguistic groups
 Sustained contact with
outside world only in 20th
century
Evolution of Indigenous Movement
& Political Organizations
1970s – Emergence of Indigenous Organizations & Discourses
• Katarista Movement, Bolivia
• CSUTCB – National Campesino Union, Bolivia - 1978
• Regional indigenous organizations, Ecuador
1980s – Unity in Ecuador; Failure of Indigenous Discourse to Transcend
in Bolivia
• Katarista Political Parties, Bolivia
• CONAIE – Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador - 1986
1990s – National & International Actors; Incursion into Formal Politics
• 1990 – Indigenous uprising, Ecuador
• 1992 – First Continental Encounter of Indian Peoples, Quito
• 1994 – Uprising against neoliberal agricultural law, Ecuador
• 1996 – Pachakutik Ecuador & ASP/MAS in Bolivia
• 1997 – Constitutional Assembly - Ecuador
Concept of Plurinationality
As Quoted in CONAIE’s Political Project
The oppression, exploitation and discrimination of
the Indigenous Nationalities and Peoples has
impeded Ecuador’s consolidation as a nation-state.
The undeniable existence of various Indigenous
Nationalities and Peoples, understood as sociocultural entities, that are fully constituted socioeconomically and politically; who share similar
spiritual, linguistic, historical and cultural identities
which differentiate us from other groups, is the
essence and foundation of Plurinationality. That is
why the new State must begin from the recognition
of diversity as the basis of its structures.
Elements of Plurinationalism
Self-determination,
 Celebration of diversity
 Anti-discrimination & affirmative action
 Redistribution of resources
 Share decision over natural resources
 Territories with equal status as traditional
state divisions
 Ethnic quotas & representation in the
state

Interculturality
Right to differentness & diversity, but
more emphasis on unity & living together
 Inclusion & equality over autonomy
 Anti-discrimination & affirmative action

The Indigenous Movement &
Correa’s Citizen Revolution
DINEIB – removal of indigenous
organizational control over bi-lingual
education & other gov’t agencies
 Water & mining laws – source of conflict

Racism in Bolivia
Indigenous Autonomies in Bolivia

Article 1:
◦ “Bolivia is a united, plurinational, communitarian state, which is
free, independent, sovereign, democratic, intercultural,
decentralized and with territorial autonomies [municipal,
departmental, regional, and indigenous], based on plurality and
political, economic, judicial, cultural and linguistic pluralism.”

Article 278:
◦ Indigenous assemblymen will be “elected by the indigenous,
original, peasant nations and peoples according to their own
norms and procedures.”
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Indigenous Movements in Bolivia and Ecuador