Chapter 8: Ancient Greece
Main Idea 1:
Geography helped shape early
Greek civilizations.
• Mountains cover
much of Greece,
so contact with
other villages was
difficult.
• People created
their own
governments and
ways of life.
• People settled in
the flat areas along
the coast and in
river valleys.
• Because travel was
so difficult inland
(from isolation),
Greeks turned to
the seas on all
sides.
• They became
skilled shipbuilders
and sailors.
• The sea became a
source of food as
well as a way of
trading with other
communities.
• They also
exchanged ideas
with other cultures.
What is the main peninsula in Greece called?
Main Idea 2:
Trading cultures developed in the
Minoan and Mycenaean
civilizations.
•
•
•
•
Minoans
They spent much of their time at
sea, trading in the Mediterranean.
Ships carried goods such as wood,
olive oil, and pottery all around
the eastern Mediterranean.
They became the victims of a huge
volcano that erupted north of
Crete (ruining its crops), which led
to the fall of Minoan Civilization.
They were not considered to be
Greek, since they didn’t speak
Greek.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mycenaeans
They were the first people to be considered
Greek.
They lived inland and built fortresses.
They were more violent in their trade.
They took over Crete and became the
major traders in the eastern Mediterranean.
They developed colonies in northern
Greece and Italy, from which they shipped
goods around the Mediterranean and the
Black Sea.
Mycenaeans attacked the city of Troy and
the civilization began to fall.
At the same time, earthquakes destroyed
many cities including Mycenae , leading
Greece into what is known as the Dark Age.
What is a ______ ?
• a traditional or legendary story, usually
concerning some being or hero or event,
with or without a determinable basis of fact
or a natural explanation, especially one that
is concerned with deities or demigods and
explains some practice, rite, or phenomenon
of nature.
• The Minotaur
– Greek legend tells of a
horrifying half-man,
half-bull creature
known as the Minotaur
that lived in a maze
beneath the palace of
Knossos
What is a _______ ?
• a nonhistorical OR unverifiable story handed
down by tradition from earlier times and
popularly accepted as historical.
• The Minoan civilization
may have inspired stories
about Atlantis, a legendary
island kingdom that
supposedly disappeared
beneath waves caused by
earthquakes. The Greek
philosopher Plato wrote
about Atlantis. He also
may have gotten the story
from ancient Egyptian
records that report the
Thera eruption.
• Page 234-235
Check Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
On what geographic feature is Greece located?
Why was travel difficult in Greece?
Where was the Minoan civilization located?
How was the decline of the Minoans and
Mycenaeans similar?
Why did the Mycenaeans put such importance on
building powerful fortresses?
Where was the Knossos Temple located?
In what direction would the Mycenaeans have had
to travel to reach the Minoan civilization?
How might the Minoans’ civilization location
provide them with protection?
Main Idea 3:
The Greeks created city-states for protection and
security.
• During the Dark Ages, the Greeks started
joining together in small groups for
protection.
• These groups set up independent city-states.
The Greek word for city-state is polis.
• The creation of city-states marks the
beginning of Greece’s classical age, an age
marked by great achievements.
Why was this time in Greece called the Dark Ages?
Main Idea 3:
The Greeks created city-states for protection and
security.
• A city-state was usually built around a strong
fortress on top of a high hill called an acropolis.
• The town around the acropolis was surrounded by
walls for protection. People no longer had to fear
raiders.
• Life in the city focused on the marketplace, or
agora.
• The city-state became the foundation for Greek
civilization and gave the Greeks an identity.
Not everyone lived inside the city walls (like farmers), but at
the time of war, women, children and the elderly would gather
inside the city walls.
Acropolis
Check Questions
• Log-in to Socrative Student
• Type in the Room #
• Only use your first and last name for
question #1, no nicknames
Check Questions
• What is a classical age?
• Why did Greeks decide to establish colonies?
• How did city walls and acropolises benefit
Greek city-states?