Marching Toward War
Chapter 13
Section 1

WWI - Roots of War.asx
Main Idea
In Europe, military
buildup, nationalistic
feelings, and rival
alliances set the stage
for a continental war.
 Ethnic conflict in the
Balkan region, which
helped start the war,
continued to erupt in
that area in the 1990s.

Introduction





For about 30 years Europe had
been at peace.
Efforts were made to outlaw
war and achieve permanent
peace.
By 1900, there were hundreds
of peace organizations.
Some Europeans believed that
war was a thing of the past.
Yet Europe was on the edge of
a massive war.
Leading up to WWI
 The
Rise of
Nationalism
 Imperialism
and Militarism
 Tangled
Alliances
The Rise of Nationalism


Nationalism can be a unifying
force, but it can also cause
intense competition.
By the turn of the 20th
century, a fierce rivalry had
developed among Europe’s
Great Powers.
 Germany, AustriaHungary, Great Britain,
Russia, Italy and France.
Rivalry Among Euro Nations
 1.
Competition
for materials and
markets.
 2. Territorial
disputes.
 3. Nationalism led
to demands for
independence.
Imperialism


European
nations had
been
competing for
colonies in
Africa and
Asia.
This
competition led
to increased
rivalries and
mistrust.
Militarism




A dangerous arms race had
developed.
Nations believed that to be great
you must have a powerful military.
By 1914, all of the Great Powers,
except Great Britain, had large
standing armies.
Militarism – the policy of glorifying
military power and keeping an army
prepared for war.
 A race to build a bigger and
stronger military than your
neighbor .
Tangled Alliances



Growing rivalries
and mutual distrust
led to the creation
of several military
alliances.
Alliance system had
been designed
to keep peace in
Europe.
Instead, it helped
push the continent
to war.
Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
How long had Europe be at peace?
What does MANIA stand for?
How did Nationalism help lead to
WWI?
What is militarism?
Why did many alliances form in
Europe?
Bismarck Forges Early Pacts

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
Bismarck had used war to unify
Germany.
He then turned his energy to maintaining
peace in Europe.
Bismarck felt that France still wanted
revenge for the Franco-Prussian War.
 Threat to peace
Bismarck wanted to isolate France.
Formed alliance with Austria-Hungary.
 Later Italy joined.
 Russia soon signed a treaty with
Germany.
Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace



Kaiser Wilhelm II forced
Bismarck to resign as Prime
Minister.
Wilhelm let treaty with Russia
lapse.
 Russia responded by forming an
alliance with France.
 Bismarck’s biggest fear.
If Germany went to war with
either, they would have to fight on
two fronts.
Triple Entente



Wilhelm II began a
shipbuilding program to
compete with the British navy.
British became scared and
formed an alliance with
France.
Britain made another alliance
with both France and
Russia – Triple Entente.
 Assured that Britain would
not fight against France or
Russia.
Crisis in the Balkans
Balkan Peninsula was
home to an assortment of
ethnic groups.
 The area had a long
history of nationalist
uprisings.
 Known as the “powder
keg” of Europe.

A Restless Region



By the early 1900s, the
Ottoman Empire, which
included the Balkan region was in
decline.
Serbia – Slavic population;
wanted to absorb the rest of the
Slavs.
 Russia also had a large Slavic
population and supported
Serbia.
Austria-Hungary opposed the
idea.
Austria-Hungary
1908 – AH took over
Bosnia and
Herzegovina.
 Both had large Slavic
population.
 Serbians were mad.
 Tensions rose.
 Serbia vowed to take
Bosnia and Herzegovina.

A Shot Rings Throughout Europe


1914 - Archduke Franz
Ferdinand, heir to the AH
throne, and his wife visited
Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia.
Couple was shot by Gavrilo
Princip, a 19 year old Serbian
and member of the Black
Hand.
 Secret society committed to
ridding Bosnia of Austrian
rule.
The Ultimatum

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Austria used the murders as an
excuse to punish Serbia.
Austria presented Serbia with an
ultimatum containing many
demands.
Serbia knew that a refusal would
lead to war.
Agreed to many demands.
Austria would not negotiate and
declared war.
Russia ordered the mobilization
of troops toward the Austrian
border.
Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Why did Bismarck want to form an alliance with
Austria-Hungary?
Why was the alliance between Russia and
France a problem for Germany?
Why did the British form an alliance with
France?
Why was the Balkan Peninsula known as the
“powder keg”?
Why did Russia mobilize its troops to the
Austria-Hungarian border?
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Marching Toward War