Marching Toward War Chapter 13 Section 1 WWI - Roots of War.asx Main Idea In Europe, military buildup, nationalistic feelings, and rival alliances set the stage for a continental war. Ethnic conflict in the Balkan region, which helped start the war, continued to erupt in that area in the 1990s. Introduction For about 30 years Europe had been at peace. Efforts were made to outlaw war and achieve permanent peace. By 1900, there were hundreds of peace organizations. Some Europeans believed that war was a thing of the past. Yet Europe was on the edge of a massive war. Leading up to WWI The Rise of Nationalism Imperialism and Militarism Tangled Alliances The Rise of Nationalism Nationalism can be a unifying force, but it can also cause intense competition. By the turn of the 20th century, a fierce rivalry had developed among Europe’s Great Powers. Germany, AustriaHungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy and France. Rivalry Among Euro Nations 1. Competition for materials and markets. 2. Territorial disputes. 3. Nationalism led to demands for independence. Imperialism European nations had been competing for colonies in Africa and Asia. This competition led to increased rivalries and mistrust. Militarism A dangerous arms race had developed. Nations believed that to be great you must have a powerful military. By 1914, all of the Great Powers, except Great Britain, had large standing armies. Militarism – the policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war. A race to build a bigger and stronger military than your neighbor . Tangled Alliances Growing rivalries and mutual distrust led to the creation of several military alliances. Alliance system had been designed to keep peace in Europe. Instead, it helped push the continent to war. Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How long had Europe be at peace? What does MANIA stand for? How did Nationalism help lead to WWI? What is militarism? Why did many alliances form in Europe? Bismarck Forges Early Pacts Bismarck had used war to unify Germany. He then turned his energy to maintaining peace in Europe. Bismarck felt that France still wanted revenge for the Franco-Prussian War. Threat to peace Bismarck wanted to isolate France. Formed alliance with Austria-Hungary. Later Italy joined. Russia soon signed a treaty with Germany. Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace Kaiser Wilhelm II forced Bismarck to resign as Prime Minister. Wilhelm let treaty with Russia lapse. Russia responded by forming an alliance with France. Bismarck’s biggest fear. If Germany went to war with either, they would have to fight on two fronts. Triple Entente Wilhelm II began a shipbuilding program to compete with the British navy. British became scared and formed an alliance with France. Britain made another alliance with both France and Russia – Triple Entente. Assured that Britain would not fight against France or Russia. Crisis in the Balkans Balkan Peninsula was home to an assortment of ethnic groups. The area had a long history of nationalist uprisings. Known as the “powder keg” of Europe. A Restless Region By the early 1900s, the Ottoman Empire, which included the Balkan region was in decline. Serbia – Slavic population; wanted to absorb the rest of the Slavs. Russia also had a large Slavic population and supported Serbia. Austria-Hungary opposed the idea. Austria-Hungary 1908 – AH took over Bosnia and Herzegovina. Both had large Slavic population. Serbians were mad. Tensions rose. Serbia vowed to take Bosnia and Herzegovina. A Shot Rings Throughout Europe 1914 - Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the AH throne, and his wife visited Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. Couple was shot by Gavrilo Princip, a 19 year old Serbian and member of the Black Hand. Secret society committed to ridding Bosnia of Austrian rule. The Ultimatum Austria used the murders as an excuse to punish Serbia. Austria presented Serbia with an ultimatum containing many demands. Serbia knew that a refusal would lead to war. Agreed to many demands. Austria would not negotiate and declared war. Russia ordered the mobilization of troops toward the Austrian border. Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why did Bismarck want to form an alliance with Austria-Hungary? Why was the alliance between Russia and France a problem for Germany? Why did the British form an alliance with France? Why was the Balkan Peninsula known as the “powder keg”? Why did Russia mobilize its troops to the Austria-Hungarian border?