Jefferson Alters the Nation's Course
Election of 1800

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Adams and Jefferson battle for Presidency
Jefferson beats Adams, but ties with Aaron
Burr
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H.o.R. Called to casts vote for President;
deadlocked at 35; Hamilton supports
Jefferson; Jefferson wins
Exposes issue with electoral process; 12th
amendment created

Electors cast 2 votes on their ballot, one
for President and one for VP
Hamilton vs. Burr Duel
Jefferson's Presidency

Jefferson replaces Fed. With D-R
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Reduces armed forces
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Reduces power of National Bank
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Eliminates Internal tax
Favors free-trade over gov't control
(tariffs)
Southern Politics dominates as Northern
power diminishes
Midnight Judges

John Marshall appointed as Chief Justice
by Adams
Adams pushes Judiciary Acts of 1801
before he leaves presidency


Appoints 16 Federalists judges
(Midnight Judges)
Jefferson argues undelivered papers
invalidate judges
Marbury v. Madison (1803)

Madison was ordered to deliver William
Marbury his papers to become a judge


Judiciary Act of 1789 required Madison to
deliver papers

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Madison refuses, so Madison sues
Marshall rules it unconstitutional
Judicial Review is established; Supreme
Court can declare Congress rulings as
unconstitutional and void
Westward Migration

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1800-1810: Ohio population grows from
45k to 231k
Use Cumberland Gap to reach OH, KY, TN
In 1775, Daniel Boone leads clearing of
Wilderness Road
Louisiana Purchase

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LA returned to France from Spain;
Jefferson fears strong French presence
Jefferson buys LA Territory from Napoleon


Doubts he has constitutional authority
LA Purchase doubles US size
Lewis and Clark

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Jefferson appoints Lewis and Clark to lead
Corps of Discovery

Explore new territory and passage to
Pacific

Gather info about people and plants
Native American women, Sacajawea,
serves as interpreter and guide
Barbary Pirates


From 1801-1805, Jefferson declared war
against the Barbary Pirates in the
Mediterranean

Pirates were seizing USA ships and
crewmen

USA had a deal with pirates to stop
seizures, but they still continued
Jefferson sends in Navy and Marines to put
down Barbary Pirates

Extension of Jefferson Executive powers
British Grievances

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British blockade French ports to prevent
ships from entering
British and French begin to seize American
ships and cargo


Britain continues to impress Americans,
drafting them to British Navy
Chesapeake Incident: 3 Americans killed,
18 wounded by British when American
captain refuses to let British on board
frigate, the Chesapeake
Embargo Act of 1807


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Jefferson convinces Congress to declare
embargo, ban on exporting to foreign
countries
Supposed to hurt European countries and
make them honor neutrality, but it actually
hurts USA
Non-Intercourse Act of 1809: USA lifts
embargo, except for Britain and France
Tecumseh's Confederacy


William Henry Harrison negotiates 3 mil.
Acres of land from NA for USA
Tecumseh refused; creates confederacy
with help from his brother, Prophet


Urged NA to return to old ways and
abolish white “civilization”
After victory at Battle of Tippecanoe, US
realizes Britain supplied NA with weapons;
War hawks, young US Congressmen
(Calhoun and Clay), demand war
Madison's Presidency


In 1808, James Madison defeats Charles
C. Pinckney for Presidency
Declares war on Britain in Spring 1812

Argues Britain is strangling trade and
cripple econ. (seize ships, impressment,
provide NA with weapons)
War Brings Mixed Results
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
War in Canada

US unprepared; British win at Montreal &
Detroit

Oliver Hazard Perry defeats British on
Lake Eerie; USA wins Battle in Canada

Tecumseh dies at Battle of Thames
(1813)
War at Sea

US Navy only had 16 war ships, 3
frigates (warships); frigates won many
victories
War Brings Mixed Results (cont...)
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British Burn the White House

1814, Britain raids towns on Atlantic
Coast

British burn White House in retaliation to
US burning down governor's mansion in
Canada
Battle of New Orleans

Andrew Jackson fights NA, gains fame

Defeats NA at Battle of Horseshoe
Bend

Destroys NA military power
Treaty of Ghent
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Peace agreement signed on Christmas 1814

Declares armistice, stop to fighting
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1815: commercial treaty opens trade btwn
US and British
1817: Rush-Bagot agreement limits war
ships on Great Lakes
1818: Northern Boundary of LA set on 49th
Parallel
Agree to share Oregon Territories