■Essential Question:
–How did America evolve
towards greater democracy
between 1800 & 1840?
–How did President Jackson
reflect this change?
Class Discussion:
What did America change from 1800 to 1830?
The Growth of Democracy
■From 1800 to 1840, democracy
increased in America:
–Before 1800, less than 50% of
white men could vote because
of property & tax restrictions
–By 1840, these restrictions were
removed which allowed 90% of
“common” white men to vote
(“universal white male suffrage”)
Because more “common men” could vote,
political parties used new techniques to get votes
Campaigns, parades, &
slogans that appealed
to the “common man”
Well organized political
parties to rally voters
As a result of these changes, the
1830s & 1840s saw massive
voter turnout in elections
What is voter turnout like today?
1. George
Washington ■ In 1828, Andrew Jackson
2. John Adams was elected president:
3. Thomas
st “common man”
–
The
1
Jefferson
4. James
candidate (Old Hickory)
Madison
–
He
split
from
Jefferson’s
5. James
Monroe
Democratic-Republican
6. John Q.
Party
&
helped
form
Adams
the Democratic Party
7. Andrew
Jackson
(the 1st modern party)
–He greatly expanded
presidential power
Andrew Jackson Video (1.45)
Jackson’s
& rowdy
inauguration
Who wild
is Andrew
Jackson?
Changing Politics Under Jackson
■President Jackson changed
American government:
–He rewarded loyal supporters
with gov’t jobs (spoils system)
–He used the presidential veto
more often than any president for
the next 100 years
–Critics of Jackson’s Democrats
formed the Whig Party (which
maintained the two-party system)
Political Parties Family Tree
The 1st Two-Party System
Democratic-Repubs
Federalists
Leader of the
party?
■ Thomas Jefferson
■ Alexander
Hamilton
■ States’ rights
&
■
Strong
national
Beliefs about gov’t?
individual liberties
government
■ Strict interpretation
Loose interpretation
Interpreting the■Constitution?
of the Constitution
of the Constitution
■ Strongest
supportregional
■ Strongest
Strongest
support?support
in South & West
in the North
■ Supported
byAmerican
■ Supported
byparty?
the
What type of
supported the
common farmers
wealthy
The 2nd Two-Party System
Democrats
Whigs
■ Pro-Jackson
■
Jackson’s
Who formed the party?
supporters
opponents
■ States’ rights,
■ Strong central gov’t,
about government?
farming, Beliefs
& Western
industry, trade, &
expansion
national banks
■ Supported in the
■ Supported in NE,
What type of American supported the party?
South & West, by
by merchants &
common farmers
bankers
Key Events of Jackson’s Presidency
■Jackson’s 8 years as president
were defined by 3 controversies:
–In 1830, Jackson signed the
Indian Removal Act to remove
remaining Indians from the East
Indian Removal Act Video (2.10)
Indian Removal
■Jackson faced a problem with
Indians in the American South:
–Gold was discovered in north
Georgia in 1828 in lands
controlled by the Cherokee who
refused to move from GA
–Jackson asked Congress for
the Indian Removal Act of 1830
to relocate Indians across the
Mississippi River
One
Since
reason
the arrival
the Cherokee
of Europeans,
still remained
the Cherokee
east of
thesaw
Mississippi
their territory
was because
slowly taken
their land
awaywas
mountainous & not ideal for cash-crop farming
The Cherokee were not removed earlier than the
1830s was because they were highly civilized &
did not fit the “traditional Indian stereotype”
The
TheCherokee
Cherokeehad
dida not
written
go
alphabet,
to war when
democratically
Congress
passed
elected
theleaders,
Indian &
Removal
were
Act,
skilled
they sued
farmers
in the
Supreme Court…and won!
But, the state of Georgia &
President Jackson ignored
the Supreme Court & took
Indian lands anyway
Sequoyah’s Syllabary
In 1838, the U.S. Army forced the
Cherokees west on the “Trail of Tears”
■ Essential Question:
–How did America evolve towards
greater democracy between 1800 &
1840?
–How did President Jackson reflect
this change?
■ Warm-Up Question:
–What is the difference between a
“Democrat” & “Whig”?
–Why was Indian Removal so
controversial under Jackson?
Key Events of Jackson’s Presidency
■Jackson’s 8 years as president
were defined by 3 controversies:
–In 1830, Jackson signed the
Indian Removal Act to remove
remaining Indians from the East
–The Nullification Crisis (1832-33)
exposed sectionalism between
the states & national government
American System &
Tariff of Abominations Video (3.13)
The Nullification Crisis
■By the 1830s, sectionalism was
becoming
obvious,that states
Nullificationmore
is the argument
have the right
to ignore
federal
especially
over
the issue
of laws
tariffs:
that they think are unfair
–Southerners argued that tariffs
helped Northern industry but
made prices higher for farmers
–When Congress passed a high
tariff in 1832, Southerners
claimed “states’ rights” &
threatened to nullify the tariff
Nullification Crisis, 1832
■ VP John Calhoun
■ President
Jackson threatened
to Jackson
from South
viewed
nullification
“hangCarolina
Calhoun from
the nearest
tree”
urged nullification
as a threat to U.S.
■ States have the
■ The national gov’t
right to protect
is supreme over the
themselves from the individual states
national government ■ Urged Congress to
■ As a last resort,
pass the Force Bill
states can secede
to enforce the tariff
from the Union
The Nullification Crisis
■ In 1833, Congress created a
compromise tariff & the crisis ended
■ Significance of Nullification Crisis:
–Revealed sectionalism between
North & South
–The South used “states’ rights” to
argue that secession was possible
–President Jackson was willing to
use force to protect the power of
the national gov’t over the states
Key Events of Jackson’s Presidency
■Jackson’s 8 years as president
were defined by 3 controversies:
–In 1830, Jackson signed the
Indian Removal Act to remove
remaining Indians from the East
–The Nullification Crisis (1832-33)
exposed sectionalism between
the states & national government
–Jackson’s decision to kill the
2nd Bank of the United States
In 1816, Congress created the
Second Bank of the U.S. as part of
Henry Clay’s American System
The BUS held ~$10 million in federal money
& loaned it to state banks which forced small
banks to be smart when issuing loans
State banks loaned money to individual
citizens, businesses, or local governments
to finance roads, canals, factories, & farms
The
Bank
War
Jackson
frequently
attacked
the
bank
as
Jackson’s veto did not immediately kill the
“dangerous
to people’s
liberties”
■ President
Jackson
hated
the
BUS…its
charter
would
not
end
for 4BUS:
years
–He thought it was unconstitutional
& gave too much power to the elite
–In 1832, he vetoed a law that
would have extended the charter
of the BUS another 20 years
–In 1833, he ordered all federal
money to beIrony?
removed from the
BUS & put in 23 “pet” state banks
–Without the BUS, the economy
entered a 6-year recession
“King”
Andrew?
Jackson was
criticized as
abusing his
Constitutional
powers as
president
Hero or Villain? You Decide!
President
Events to get you started…
Thomas Jefferson Embargo of 1807
Louisiana Purchase
James Madison
James Monroe
Andrew Jackson
Declaration of War (1812)
Washington DC Burned
Treaty of Ghent
Monroe Doctrine
Missouri Compromise
Era of Good Feelings
Indian Removal Act
Nullification Crises
Closing Bank of United States
■ The period of time in U.S. history
before the Civil War is known as the
Antebellum Era (1800-1860)
–Early Antebellum (1800-1840)
• American nationalism
• Age of the “common man”
• Industrial revolution, rise of
“king cotton,” market economy
–Late Antebellum (1840-1860)
• Manifest Destiny into the West
• Sectionalism divided North & South