MR. LIPMAN’S US 1
POWERPOINT
CHAPTER TWO
THE COLONIZATION OF THE
AMERICAS
The Conquest of Mexico
• 1519 – Hernán Cortés sailed from Cuba to Mexico
to conquer Aztecs
• 1521 Cortes conquers the Aztecs and Montezuma
• 1580 Pope’s Rebellion against the Spanish
• By 1600 most Indians had died from disease
Explorations of Hernán Cortés
• Roanoke
–1585 – island settled off coast of
Virginia by Sir Walter Raleigh
–Roanoke colonists disappeared; still a
mystery as to what happened to them
JAMESTOWN FOUNDED 1607 AS FIRST
SUCCESSFUL ENGLISH COLONY
Map of Jamestown
The Pilgrims Search Ends at Plymouth
• In 1620, a group of 102 people, set sail on the
Mayflower for America from Holland where
they had fled 12 years before from England
– They negotiated with the Virginia Company to
settle in its jurisdiction but got lost and ended
up at Plymouth in what would become
Massachusetts
• The Mayflower Compact was written and
signed before the Pilgrims disembarked
from the Mayflower
–Not a constitution, but an agreement to
form a crude government and submit to
majority rule
PURITANS vs. SEPARATISTS
• Non-Separatists Puritans
– Less radical than Separatists; sought to reform
Church of England from within
• Massachusetts’ religious mission
• “We shall be as a city upon a hill” – John
Winthrop
• Colonists shared a sense of purpose to build a
holy society to serve as an example to the rest
of the world
• Anne Hutchinson
Intelligent, strong-willed, well-spoken woman
• Truly saved didn’t need to obey the law of
either God or man
ROGER WILLIAMS
Puritans in Massachusetts Bay wanted to
exile him to England to prevent him from
founding a competing colony
Instead he founded the colony of Rhode
Island
• 1637 – the Pequot War
– Hostility broke out between Pequot and whites
– Whites (with Narragansett Indian allies) attacked
Pequot village on Mystic River, setting fire to homes
and shooting fleeing survivors
– Pequot tribe was virtually annihilated; uneasy peace
lasted 40 years
• 1675 – 1676 – King Philip’s War
– Metacom (known as King Philip to whites)
– Colonists put his head on a stake for 20 years
THE DUTCH AND THE COLONIES
• The 1600s were a golden age of Dutch history
– Country was a major commercial and naval
power, challenging England on sea
• Explorations of Henry Hudson
– Sailed to Delaware Bay, New York Bay, and
then down the Hudson River Looking for the
“Northwest Passage” across Americas to Asia
by sea
• New Netherland
– Was founded in 1623 – 1624 in the Hudson
River Area
– The colony had little ammunition and poor
defenses; Peter Stuyvesant was the first
Governor and was forced to surrender
without firing a shot when England decided
to attack.
– New Amsterdam was renamed New York by
the English (for the Duke of York)
• William Penn, a noble Englishman who was
attracted to the Quaker faith
– Wanted to help fellow Quakers escape
persecution
– Believed in liberal ideas of government
– Was friendly to Indians
• Penn received the huge grant of fertile land to
settle a debt the king owed Penn’s father
– The king named area Pennsylvania (“Penn’s
Woodland”)
– Philadelphia (“brother love” in Greek) was
established as the capitol
• Middle colonies
– New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania
• Spanish Armada
– Catholic Spanish King Philip II
assembled “Invincible Armada” of
ships to invade England
• In 1588, the Spanish sailed for England
– English ships attacked using better
ships (smaller but faster, with better
crew) inflicted damages on Spanish
– Then huge storm (the “Protestant
wind”) finished off the Spanish
Colony of
Maryland
founded
1634 as a
religious
haven-later
Act of
Toleration
passed
• Indentured servants were white English farmers
displaced by the enclosure movement
– They voluntarily mortgaged their work in the
Chesapeake for several years to get a
transatlantic passage
• The headright system encouraged indentured
servants to come
provided that for every indentured servant
who was brought over the master, or payer,
would receive 50 acres of land.
Bacon’s Rebellion
• In 1676 1,000 Virginians, most former
indentured servants who had moved west
to the Piedmont area for available land,
rebelled
– They resented Governor Berkeley’s
corrupt relations with the Indians and
how he monopolized the fur trade with
the Indians in the Chesapeake and would
not allow expansion by settlers
Bacon’s Rebellion
– Rebels attacked the Indians, whether they
were friendly or not to whites
– Governor Berkeley was driven from
Jamestown and rebels burned the city
– During rebellion, Bacon died of disease
– Gov. Berkeley crushed the rebellion and 20
rebels were then hung as punishment for
their actions.
Nathaniel
Bacon
• Georgia Founded in 1733
– Last of 13 colonies
– Named in honor of King George II
– Founded by James Oglethorpe
• Purposes of Georgia
– Chiefly was to serve as a buffer between
the valuable Carolinas and Spanish
Florida and French Louisiana
– Served as a haven for debtors thrown
into prison
Early Carolina and Georgia Settlements
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MR. LIPMAN`S US 1 POWERPOINT