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Chapter 2
The Constitution
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Chapter Outline and Learning
Objectives
Roots of the New American Nation
LO 2.1: Trace the historical developments that
led to the colonists’ break with Great Britain
and the emergence of the new American
nation.
The First Attempt at Government: The
Articles of Confederation
LO 2.2: Identify the key components of the
Articles of Confederation and the reasons why
it failed.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
Chapter Outline and Learning
Objectives
The Miracle at Philadelphia:
Writing the U.S. Constitution
LO 2.3: Outline the issues and compromises
that were central to the writings of the U.S.
Constitution.
The U.S. Constitution
LO 2.4: Analyze the underlying principles of
the U.S. Constitution
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
Chapter Outline and Learning
Objectives
The Drive for Ratification of the U.S.
Constitution
LO 2.5: Explain the conflicts that characterized the
drive for ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
Toward Reform: Methods of Amending the
U.S. Constitution
LO 2.6: Distinguish between the methods for
proposing and ratifying amendments to the U.S.
Constitution.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
Roots of the New American Nation
LO 2.1: Trace the historical developments that led to the colonists’
break with Great Britain and the emergence of the new American
nation.
•
•
•
•
Tensions begin to build in the 1760s
British use mercantilism to justify control
French and Indian War increases British
debt and colonists’ dependence
Series of acts are passed taxing items such
as sugar, tea, and paper products
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LO 2.1
Roots of the New American Nation
•
•
•
Stamp Act Congress (1765)
is formed to address grievances
Committees of Correspondence
(1772) form to keep colonists
abreast of developments
Despite grievances taxation
continues
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LO 2.1
The First Continental Congress
•
•
Held in Philadelphia from Sept
5th to Oct 26th, 1774
Objectives
–
–
–
•
Formally oppose the Coercive Acts
Boycott British goods
Draft a Declaration of Rights and
Resolves
Planned next meeting for May
1775
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LO 2.1
The Second Continental Congress
•
•
•
•
Prior to meeting, fighting breaks out April
19th, 1775 at Lexington and Concord
Adopt Olive Branch Petition; rejected by
the King
Thomas Paine writes Common Sense in
January 1776
Declaration of Independence is
written in July 1776 and draws heavily
from English philosopher John Locke
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LO 2.1
What was the main grievance of the
Stamp Act Congress?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The Stamp Act barred the colonists from using their
own stamps.
The Stamp Act had little effect in raising the required
revenues to pay for the French and Indian War.
The taxes imposed by the British had a religious context
and therefore conflicted with the separation of church
and state.
The British Parliament had no authority to tax the
colonists without colonial representation in that body.
The Stamp Act included the taxing of books and playing
cards.
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LO 2.1
What was the main grievance of the
Stamp Act Congress?
A.
The Stamp Act barred the colonists from using their
own stamps.
B. The Stamp Act had little effect in raising the required
revenues to pay for the French and Indian War.
C. The taxes imposed by the British had a religious context
and therefore conflicted with the separation of church
and state.
D. The British Parliament had no authority to tax
the colonists without colonial representation in
that body.
E. The Stamp Act included the taxing of books and playing
cards.
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The First Attempt at Government:
The Articles of Confederation
LO 2.2: Identify the key components of the Articles of
Confederation and the reasons why it failed.
•
•
•
•
•
First formal independent government
Establishes a confederation in which
states are the dominant source of power
Federal government is deliberately weak
No standing federal executive, judiciary, or
power to tax
Shays’s Rebellion illustrates Articles’
weaknesses
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LO 2.2
What type of government did the
Articles of Confederation create?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Federal government
Confederacy
Republic
Democracy
Unitary government
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LO 2.2
What type of government did the
Articles of Confederation create?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Federal government
Confederacy
Republic
Democracy
Unitary government
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The Miracle at Philadelphia:
Writing the U.S. Constitution
LO 2.3: Outline the issues and compromises that were central to
the writing of the U.S. Constitution.
Constitutional Convention
• Held in Philadelphia in May, 1787 to
revise the Articles of Confederation
• Fifty-five delegates (referred to as the
“Founders” or “Framers”) attended
• Motives of the delegates unclear
• Diversity of opinions necessitates
compromise
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LO 2.3
The Virginia Plan
•
•
•
Favored the large states
Provided for three branches of
government
Produced a bicameral system
–
–
•
One chamber chosen by the people
One chamber chosen by state legislatures
Congress would choose executive and
judiciary
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LO 2.3
The New Jersey Plan
Essentially strengthened the Articles
of Confederation
Produced a unicameral system
•
•
–
–
•
Each state, regardless of the number of
representatives, was given one vote
Members were elected by state legislatures
Supreme Court with life terms
appointed by the Executive
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LO 2.3
Constitutional Compromises
The Great Compromise
•
–
–
–
Bicameral system: House based on population (elected by
the people); Senate based on statehood (elected by state
legislatures): two for each state
Revenue bills originate in House
National government is supreme
The Three-Fifths Compromise
•
–
–
Each slave counted as three-fifths of a person for purposes
of representation
Prevents attacks on slavery but makes spread of slavery
northward unlikely
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LO 2.3
The disagreement over the Virginia
and New Jersey Plans was solved by
what?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The Three-Fifths Compromise
The disagreement was never solved
The Great Compromise
Presidential decree
George Washington through clever negotiations
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LO 2.3
The disagreement over the Virginia
and New Jersey Plans was solved by
what?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The Three-Fifths Compromise
The disagreement was never solved
The Great Compromise
Presidential decree
George Washington through clever negotiations
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The U.S. Constitution
LO 2.4: Analyze the underlying principles of the U.S. Constitution
•
•
•
•
•
Federalism
Separation of Powers
Checks and Balances
Seven Articles
Twenty Seven Amendments – the first
ten of which are the Bill of Rights
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LO 2.4
The Articles of the Constitution
Article I: The Legislative Branch
• Bicameral
• Sets out terms, selection, apportionment
• Section 8
•
Enumerated powers
– 17 clauses
•
Implied powers
– Final clause: necessary and proper clause
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LO 2.4
The Articles of the Constitution
Article II: The Executive Branch
–
–
–
–
Four year terms
Qualifications for office
Removal
Powers
•
•
•
–
Commander in Chief
Treaties
Appointments
Addressing the nation
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LO 2.4
The Articles of the Constitution
Article III: the Judicial Branch
• The Supreme Court
• Congress and the lower courts
• Jurisdiction
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LO 2.4
The Articles of the Constitution
Articles IV through VII
• Article IV: relations among the states
and the full faith and credit clause
• Article V: amending the constitution
• Article VI: supremacy clause
• Article VII: ratification
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LO 2.4
The ______________ can be found
in Article IV of the Constitution.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
commerce clause
necessary and proper clause
supremacy Clause
full faith and credit clause
elastic clause
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LO 2.4
The ______________ can be found
in Article IV of the Constitution.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
commerce clause
necessary and proper clause
supremacy Clause
full faith and credit clause
elastic clause
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The Drive for Ratification of the U.S.
Constitution
LO 2.5: Explain the conflicts that characterized the drive for
ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
•
States held ratifying conventions
–
•
Federalists and Anti-Federalists
–
•
The Federalist Papers
Nine states need to ratify
–
•
Initially great resistance from the states
New Hampshire becomes the ninth in 1788
States ultimately ratified on condition
of the inclusion of a Bill of Rights
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LO 2.5
The Federalist Papers
•
•
•
Most written by
Alexander Hamilton and
James Madison between
October 1787 and May
1788
Explanations of the
Framers’ intentions
Nos. 10, 51, and 78 of
particular importance
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LO 2.5
The Bill of Rights
•
•
•
First ten amendments to the U.S.
Constitution
Largely guarantee specific rights and
liberties including freedom of expression,
speech, press, religion, and assembly
Ratified in 1791
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LO 2.5
What did the Federalists favor?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
A strong national government
A weak national government
Strong state governments
Limited taxing power
State militias
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LO 2.5
What did the Federalists favor?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
A strong national government
A weak national government
Strong state governments
Limited taxing power
State militias
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Toward Reform: Methods of Amending
the U.S. Constitution
LO 2.6: Distinguish between the methods for proposing and
ratifying amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
•
•
Framers made formal amendment
process slow to prevent impulsive
amendments
Two methods for amending: formal
and informal
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LO 2.6
Formal Methods of Amending the
Constitution
Two-step process
• Proposal
–
•
By Congress or state legislatures (state
legislatures have never proposed)
Ratification
–
By state legislatures or conventions (convention
used only for Twenty-First Amendment
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LO 2.6
Informal Methods of Amending the
Constitution
•
Judicial Interpretation
–
•
Marbury v. Madison (1803) and judicial
review
Social and Cultural Change
–
–
Racism, sexism
Economic crises
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LO 2.6
Why is the amendment of the
Twenty-First Amendment
considered unique?
A. It was amended informally through
judicial review.
B. It reversed a prior amendment.
C. It was never actually amended.
D. It was the only amendment to be
ratified by state conventions.
E. Both B and D.
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LO 2.6
Why is the amendment of the
Twenty-First Amendment
considered unique?
A. It was amended informally through
judicial review.
B. It reversed a prior amendment.
C. It was never actually amended.
D. It was the only amendment to be
ratified by state conventions.
E. Both B and D.
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Figure 2.1: How did the British presence in
what is now the United States look in
1763?
To Learning Objectives
Figure 2.2: What are the separation of
powers and checks and balances under
the U.S. Constitution?
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Figure 2.3: How can the U.S.
Constitution be amended?
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Table 2.1: How do the Articles of
Confederation and the U.S. Constitution
compare to one another?
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Table 2.2: What were the differences
between the Federalists and the AntiFederalists?
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