Chapters 20,21,22: Africa and
the Slave Trade, the
Gunpowder Empires, and Asian
Changes, 1450-1750
Africa: 1450-1750
No longer aligned
with the Islamic world
trading system
Forceably brought
into the Atlantic
trading system
Heterogeneous
societies and cultures
The Empire of Mali
Located in the Sahel
region south of the
Sahara, became
powerful after 750 CE
Wealthy center of
trade
Part of Dar al’Islam
Rich in gold,
agriculturally fertile
Capital: Timbuktu
Timbuktu: A Major Cultural Center
Timbuktu: A Major Cultural Center
The Mosque of Jenne
Mansa Musa 1312-1337: Greatest
King of Mali
Songhay
After the decline of Mali
the Kingdom of Songhay
gained power in the
Sahel
Powerful cavalry and
navy
Muslim dominated
Standardized weights,
measures, and currency
Greatest King: Sonni Ali
1464-1492
The Swahili Coast
Eastern coast of Africa
Long term involvement in Indian Ocean trade
Portuguese and other European influence
Cosmopolitan city-states
Predominantly Muslim
Swahili language: a lingua franca
Traded with the interior of Africa
English and Swahili
Car
Bicycle
Motorbike
Train
Boat
Aeroplane
Petrol
Mechanic
Gari
Baiskeli
Pikipiki
Gari la moshi
Mashua
Ndege [Eropleni]
Petroli
Fundi
Coffee
Tea
with/without
milk/sugar
Danger!
Fetch a doctor
Chemist
Kahawa
Chai
na/bila
maziwa/sukari
Hatari!
Ita daktari
Duka la dawa
Great Zimbabwe
Southern African kingdom
Traded with the Swahili
Coast and the African
interior
Too far inland to be
affected by Islam
The only fully African
civilization, with no
outside cultural influences
Ruins of Great Zimbabwe
The Forest Kingdoms of West
Africa
First area to be
exploited by
Europeans
Dominant region:
Benin
Benin art: highly
detailed and realistic
Source of most slaves
taken to the Americas
Benin Art
The Atlantic Slave Trade:
Beginnings
Contact between Europeans and Africans
began in late 1400s with Portuguese
expeditions along the coast
At first Europeans saw Africans as being
equal to themselves
Europeans and Africans studied at
universities, exchanged ambassadors, and
communicated between rulers
Christian missionaries traveled to Africa
Africans and Slavery
Slavery was an indigenous part of African
culture
Slavery among Africans was usually
temporary
The Atlantic Slave Trade Begins
European “discovery” of the Americas led
to exploitation of Africans
Native Americans quickly died off from
overwork and disease
Europeans needed a new source of
coerced labor
By 1600, slaves were the largest trade
item from Africa
The Atlantic Slave Trade
1450-1850: about 12 million Africans were
shipped to the Americas
As many as 4 million more Africans were killed
in internal slaving wars
African rulers participated in the slave trade by
gathering slaves and bringing them to coastal
forts
Portuguese, Dutch, French, and British all
established posts and fortresses along the west
coast of Africa for buying slaves
African Captives in Yokes
The Middle Passage
The Triangle Trade
A typical slave ship’s layout
“Coffin” Position:
Onboard a Slave Ship
Slave Ship Interior
African Slavery in the Americas
Primary destination of most slaves: Brazil
and the Caribbean Islands
Typical life expectancy of a healthy male
slave on arrival: 6 months
No natural increase among the slave
population in most areas
North American Slavery
Labor on tobacco and rice plantations was
less “onerous”
There was a natural increase among North
American slaves
Consequences of Atlantic Slave
Trade
Long term population decline in West
Africa
Transfer of African foods and customs to
the Americas
American food crops introduced in Africa
Africans in the Americas were converted
to Christianity, but sometimes maintained
elements of African religions
Europeans in South Africa
The Cape of Good Hope was
reached by the Portuguese in
the late 1400s
The Dutch established a
colony there in 1652. Their
settlers were called Boers
Expansion brought the Boers
into contact and conflict with
the indigenous Bantu, Zulu,
and other African peoples
In 1815 the British took control
of South Africa
Conflict continued between the
Boers, British, and the
indigenous Africans
The Gunpowder Empires
Ottomans (Middle
East, primarily
Turkey, and Eastern
Europe)
Safavids (Iran)
Mughals (India)
The Gunpowder Empires
Military power based on gunpowder
weapons
Islamic (Ottomans and Mughals: Sunni;
Safavids: Shi’a)
Political absolutism
Cultural renaissances
Less powerful than Western Europe
The Ottoman Turks
One of several Turkic
tribes which entered the
Middle East and
converted to Islam
Powerful military led by
Janissaries
In 1326, captured the
town of Bursa near
Constantinople
Built navies and seized
control of the eastern
Mediterranean
Conquered much of
Balkan Peninsula
Janissaries
Constantinople captured, 1453
Captured by Sultan Mehmed II
End of the Byzantine Empire
Constantinople (Istanbul) was
rebuilt and gained population
and wealth
Tolerance for dhimmis
More emphasis on military
than economic power
“conquest over commerce”
Ottoman Empire continued to
expand for the next century
Ottoman Sultans were also the
Caliphs of (Sunni) Islam
Suleiman the Magnificent 15201566
Greatest Ottoman ruler
Called “The Lawgiver” or
‘The Just” by Muslims
Codified the Shari’a
Rebuilt and beautified
Istanbul
Patron of the arts, poet,
made Istanbul a center of
Ottoman cultural
flowering
Suleiman’s Poetry
Some of Suleiman's verses, have become
Turkish proverbs, including the well-known
"Everyone aims at the same meaning, but many
are the versions of the story," and "In this world
a spell of good health is the best state” He wrote
in Turkish, Persian, and Arabic.
– "The people think of wealth and power as the
greatest fate,
– But in this world a spell of health is the best state.
– What men call sovereignty is a worldly strife and
constant war;
– Worship of God is the highest throne, the
happiest of all estate's”
Tughra or Monogram of Suleiman
The Topkapi Palace
The Blue Mosque of
Constantinople
Suleimanye Mosque
Miniature Painting: An Ottoman Art
Form
The Piri Re’is Map, a mystery from
Suleiman’s time
It appears to show the
west coast of Africa, the
east coast of South
America, and the
northern (land) coast of
Antarctica
A map belonging to the
Turkish Admiral Piri Re’is
ca 1514
Appears to be based on
older maps
Shows accurate use of
longitude
Suleiman and the Europeans
Suleiman recognized
that Europe was a
major potential threat
to the Ottoman
Empire and to Islam
He attempted to
destabilize Europe
with several invasions
He also provided
financial support to
Protestants
The death of Suleiman and the
decline of the Ottomans
As Suleiman grew older
he lost interest in
government and allowed
the bureaucracy to rule
alone
He allowed his sons to be
raised uneducated in the
harem, dominated by
their mothers
This set a precedent for
future Sultans and their
sons
Selim II, The Drunkard 1566-1574
The first
“disinterested”
Ottoman sultan
Defeated by the
Spanish at the Battle
of Lepanto in 1571,
lost control of the
Mediterranean
Ottoman Decline
Over the next several centuries, the Ottoman
Empire gradually declined
Europeans gained control of the seas and ended
Muslim trade monopolies
Succession problems and uneducated Sultans
European economic competition
Technological and cultural conservatism
Janissaries held power and blocked reforms
The Safavids
Turkic tribe which
entered Iran
Converted to Shiite
Islam
Isma’il 1494-1524
Took control of the Safavids in 1494 at the
age of 7, claimed to be the Hidden Imam
By 1512 he controlled all of Iran and
became the first Safavid Shah
Defeated by the Ottomans at the Battle of
Chaldiran in 1514 (blocked Shiite
expansion)
Shah Abbas I 1588-1629
The greatest Safavid ruler
Made alliances with
Europeans against the
Ottomans
Encouraged trade and
commerce with Western
Europeans
Period of great wealth
and cultural creativity
Mixture of Persian and
Islamic influences
Isfahan: The Safavid Capital
Safavid Architecture
Safavid Poetry (Rumi)
O you who've gone on pilgrimage where are you, where, oh
where?
Here, here is the Beloved!
Oh come now, come, oh
come!
Your friend, he is your neighbor,
he is next to your wall You, erring in the desert what air of love is this?
If you'd see the Beloved's
form without any form You are the house, the master,
You are the Kaaba, you! . . .
Where is a bunch of roses,
if you would be this garden?
Where, one soul's pearly essence
when you're the Sea of God?
That's true - and yet your troubles
may turn to treasures rich How sad that you yourself veil
the treasure that is yours!
Ottomans and Safavids Compared
The Ottomans were more market-oriented
than the Safavids
Safavid women had more freedom and
were less secluded than Ottoman women
The Ottomans had a larger territory and
more resources.
Decline and Fall of the Safavids
Succession problems after the death of
Abbas I
European economic competition
Religious conflict between Sunnis and
Shiites
1722: Safavids collapsed
The Mughals
Descended from the
Mongols
Influenced by
Chinese and Islamic
cultures
Originated in
Turkestan in Central
Asia
Sunni Muslims with
Sufi influence
Babur “the Tiger” 1483-1530
Invaded present day
Afghanistan and then
northern India
Defeated the Delhi
Sultanate
First Muslim to use
gunpowder weapons
(muskets and artillery
At the same time,
Europeans were
beginning to have contact
with India from the sea
Humayun 1530-1556
From 1530-1540, lost all
of his father’s empire in a
series of rebellions
Went into exile in Persia
and rebuilt his army
(Persian culture
introduced to Mughals)
By 1555, managed to
reconquer the Mughal
Empire
Humayun’s Tomb in Delhi
Akbar the Great 1556-1605
Greatest ruler of
Indian history
Became Shah at age
13
Completed the
conquest of Northern
India
Developed an
efficient bureaucracy
Attempted to win over
Hindus
The Din-i-Ilahi: “The Religion of
God”
Attempted to synthesize
the world’s religions into
one
Predominantly based on
Islam
Elements of Hinduism,
Jainism, and
Zoroastrianism
Asked Christian
missionaries to
participate
Eventually rejected by
both Muslims and Hindus
Jahangir 1605-1628
Conquered Eastern
India
Patron of the arts
“The Age of Mughal
Splendor”
Mughal Art
The Red Fort, Delhi
Mughal Architecture
Jahan 1628-1658
Expanded Empire
Defeated the
Portuguese
Known for
magnificent
architectural projects
Mumtaz Mahal
Jahan’s favorite wife
Died in 1631 giving birth
to her fourteenth child
Jahan built the most
magnificent tomb
possible: The Taj Mahal
Combination of Indian,
Persian, Chinese
architectural styles
Aurangzeb 1658-1707
Shah Jahan’s building
projects and taxes
caused rebellions
among the Hindus
Aurangzeb overthrew
and imprisoned his
father in 1658 and
became Shah
Expanded the Mughal
Empire to its greatest
extent
Aurangzeb 1658-1707
Devout Muslim who insisted Shar’ia become the
law of the land
Persecuted Hindus, closed temples, outlawed
practice of sati
Renewed taxes on non-Muslims which had been
ended by Akbar the Great
Revolts began, aided by Europeans in India
By early 1700s Mughals were losing control of
India and Europeans were gaining influence
Sikhs
A major Indian religion which
began in the 16th century under
the Mughals
Centered in Northern India, 23
million followers
Began with Guru Nanak (15691539)
Total of 10 Gurus (the last died
in 1708)
Mystical, egalitarian,
disciplined
Major political and economic
force in India and Pakistan
Comparisons of the Declines of the
Gunpowder Empires
Internal weaknesses and conflicts
Overexpansion
Weak, incompetent rulers
Muslim contempt for Europeans meant the
Europeans were underestimated
Economic and military decline as
Europeans gained power
The World in 1700
Asia and European Contact 14501750
Europeans were not powerful enough to
exploit Asia during 1450-1750
Europeans at first had difficulty trading for
Asian goods since they had little or
nothing the Asians valued
Europeans were only able to trade
successfully with Asia after they gained
access to the New World’s precious
metals
The Asian World in 1700
Chapter 22 p. 482
European Trade With Asia
Using superior naval technology, the
Portuguese were able to establish a trade
network in the Indian Ocean by 1507
By the later 1500s, the Dutch, French, and
the English had driven out the Portuguese
The Dutch took control of the Spice
Islands (modern Indonesia)
The French and English concentrated on
India
European Missionaries
Roman Catholic
Christianity was
introduced into the
Philippines by the
Spanish, where it
merged with local
animistic beliefs and
traditions
Elsewhere in Asia,
Christianity became a
minority religion
Ming China 1368-1644
Oldest, largest, and
richest civilization
Part of the world
economy, but foreign
trade was only a small
part of the Chinese
economy
Silk, porcelain, and cotton
were major exports, with
tea becoming
increasingly important
Ming China’s Economic Impact on
the World
Ming China used silver as
its monetary metal
The Single Whip tax on
all Chinese had to be
paid in silver
Therefore, Ming China
was a major importer of
silver in exchange for
trade goods
The largest source of
silver was the Americas
Ming China’s Agricultural
Revolution
New World crops such as corn, peppers,
and the sweet potato were introduced to
China
Crop rotation
Massive reforestation
China’s population grew from 65 million in
1400 to 300 million by 1800
Ming China’s Commercial
Revolution
Population growth led to
increased urbanization
Small businesses
specialized in porcelain,
tea, silk, cotton, and
paper manufacturing
European trade with Ming
China was tightly
controlled by the Chinese
government, which was
wary of foreign influence
Decline and Fall of the Ming
Little Ice Age related climate problems
were especially severe in the early 1600s
Incompetent emperors were unable to
help
Famine and natural disasters led to
peasant rebellions
In 1644 the Manchus invaded, destroyed
the Ming, and established the Qing
Dynasty
Japan
Japan 1450-1750
Ca 1467-1600 Warring States period: no
central leadership (Emperor only
ceremonial)
1543: Portuguese traders arrived in
southern Japan. Other Europeans followed
Portuguese and other Europeans served
as middlemen, carrying goods between
Japan and China
Territorial dispute today
Senkaku Islands
Christianity in Japan
Catholic missionaries led
by Francis Xavier arrived
beginning in 1549
Christianity had great
appeal in Japan, and
many converted,
especially on island of
Kyushu
Japanese converts
traveled to Europe to
meet the Pope
Japan’s reaction to European
contact
Fascination with the “nanbanjin”
Intense interest in learning about and from
the Europeans
Large amount of trade between Japanese
and Europeans
Jesuits in Japan p.501
Tokugawa Ieyasu
By 1598, had managed to
unify Japan under his rule
Tokugawa Shogunate
1598-1868
Distrusted Europeans
and Christians as
potentially disloyal to his
rule
Restrictions placed on
European traders and
missionaries
Japanese Christians were
persecuted
Sakoju Jidai: National Seclusion
By mid 1600s all European traders were
banned except the Dutch
Dutch traders were only allowed in
Nagasaki
Japanese were not allowed to travel
abroad, and foreigners were forbidden to
enter
Christianity was suppressed
The Tokugawa Shogunate
1.
2.
3.
4.
Centralized government under Confucian
principles
Four social classes
Samurai
Farmers
Artisans
Merchants
The Tokugawa Shogunate
Urbanization, with three major cities: Edo,
Kyoto, Osaka
Rice was the staple crop
Urban areas had many small businesses
and industries
Confucianist schools allowed most men
and some women to become literate
Dutch studies group studied European
books in Nagasaki
Download

Chapters 20,21,22: Africa and the Slave Trade, the Gunpowder