Italian unification
Revision of the
Risorgimento
Main themes
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Origins of Risorgimento
Piedmont emerges as leading Italian state
The role of Cavour
Unification phase I 1859 – 60
Unification phase II – Garibaldi gets the south
Venetia 1866
Rome 1870
Unification complete?
Trends towards unification
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Napoleon
Nationalism
1815
settlement
and Austrian
dominance.
Italian nationalism
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The Carbonari
Revolutions of 1821, 1830 & 1848
Thinkers Gioberti, Mazzini & Young Italy,
language - Manzoni – « the betrothed », Verdi
and opera
mostly MC and intellectual elite.
Revolution of 1848 – lessons learned
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Revolts all over Italy
Charles Albert in Piedmont – Statuto, war
against Austria.
Hopes for Pius IX ended – Garibaldi & Roman
republic.
Austria triumphant, French troops to Rome
(1849)
Italy cannot « fara da se » but Piedmont leading
state.
Someone who learned the lessons Count Camillo di Cavour
Piedmont takes the lead
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Count Camillo di Cavour PM 1852
Modernises Piedmont – why?
Politics (Constitution) & church
Economy – agriculture, communications, trade
Army
Was Cavour an Italian or a Piedmontese
nationalist?
Cavour gets foreign help
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Crimean war 1854 – 56
Peace of Paris 1856
Britain
Napoleon III
Orsini plot
Plombieres 1858
The international situation was
favourable
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Russia
Prussia
Britain
France
Nationalism - fashionable
Unification Phase I 1859 - 60
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War 1859
France defeats Austria at Magenta and Solferino
Villafranca – Piedmont gets Lombardy
Cavour resigns!
1860 Central Italy out of control – Central
duchies and Romagna
Cavour back – France gets Nice & Savoy.
Plebiscites – vote for Piedmont.
Unification Phase II – Garibaldi gets
the south
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1860 Revolt in Sicily
1000 redshirts led by Garibaldi
Cross to mainland and take Naples
Cavour moves south
Garibaldi meets Victor Emmanuel II at Teano
1861 kingdom of Italy proclaimed
The final steps
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1866 Austro-Prussian war
Bismarck promises Venetia to Italy
1870 Franco – Prussian war
French troops withdrawn
Italy takes Rome
« the prisoner in the vatican »
1870 Unification
complete
Or was it really?
The South?
Language?
Trentino & South Tryol?
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Italian unification revision