HOLT
CHAPTER 9
World
Geography
Today
Canada
Section 1: History and Culture
Section 2: Canada Today
Section 3: Geographic Issues
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 1
History and Culture
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Europe’s role in Canada’s early history:
 France
 arrived in 1530s
 goals—to explore, exploit fish and furs, spread Catholic
religion
 founded colony in Quebec
 Great Britain
 colonized Nova Scotia in 1713
 forced France out by 1763
 organized Canada into provinces
 established self-governing dominion
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 1
History and Culture
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Key features of Canadian culture:
 mix of French and British culture, with U.S. influences
 many immigrants in recent years
 French-Canadian culture in Quebec
 British culture in Ontario and further west
 in north you have Inuit(Eskimos), and Canadian
Indians
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 2
Canada Today
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Foundations of Canada’s economy:
 Mainly manufacturing and services
 mining a key activity
 Atlantic Provinces—reliance on forest and sea resources,
along with minerals (poorest region)
 Quebec and Ontario—industry, finance, trade, farming, mining
 Prairie Provinces—commercial farming (Wheat), mining and
oil drilling, tourism
 British Columbia—forest products, fishing, mining
 North—mining, Oil, tourism
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 2
Canada Today
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Factors in the growth of Canada’s cities:
 Toronto, Canada’s largest city —major companies
 Montreal—cultural capital, good transportation
(Subway)
 Victoria and Vancouver—west-coast centers based
on fishing, tourism, trade
 Prairie cities—Calgary, Edmonton, and Winnipeg—
farming, oil production, trade
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 2
Canada Today
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Canada’s government:
 maintains British ties and British monarch
 democratic government with a prime minister and
parliament
 provincial governments have local power
 three northern territories with some control over local
issues
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
HOLT
Section 3
World
Geography
Today
Geographic Issues
American influence in Canada:
 Influence based on cultural, historic, and economic
connections.
 Free trade, through NAFTA, has tied the countries
together.
 Canadian and U.S. cities are linked across the border.
 American media and popular culture pours into
Canada.
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 3
Geographic Issues
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Effects of geography on Canadian unity:
 Regional loyalties undermine unity.
 Physical barriers and distance contribute to
separation.
 Differences between French and British culture
promote separatism.
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
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World Geography Today