Gave ownership of land in the New World (America) to the Gov’t of the explorer who made the discovery Made Indians the “rightful occupant” of the land, but gave legal ownership to the Gov’t TWO main effects: 1) Prevented U.S from trying to conquer the Indians. 2) Indian tribes were recognized as sovereign nations Many early treaties contained a Gov’t agreement to provide services in exchange of land Gov’t offered to protect Indian rights, and Gov’t also acknowledged Indians to occupy the land. NATIVE AMERICANS Viewed individual ownership as impossible Believed the land belonged to the “Great Spirit” made for everyone. Land was necessary for survival (fishing, hunting, shelter) If they sold land, they believed is was only temporary (renting) WHITE SETTLERS Viewed ownership as sign of success, and ultimate goal Sign of industry and hard work Person’s importance was based on property ownership Bought land on a permanent basis NATIVE AMERICANS Tribes emphasized “interdependence” Hard physical labor was a woman’s duty (farmwork) Men were the hunters and warriors Believed farming huge areas of land was an “assault” on mother earth WHITE SETTLERS Emphasized “independence” and selfsufficiency Believed hard physical labor was sign of a worthy person, kept them close to God Father of family would lead the family in work Indians regarded whites a “poachers” encroaching on tribal land, began to attack frontier settlements. Colonists considered Indians inferior and “evil” The American Revolution had Indians ally with the British, which justified Americans taking tribal lands. “Rights of Conquest” since they had been defeated along with the British Was a white man’s problem, in their need for confiscating prime farming lands, but the Indians occupied these lands. President Thomas Jefferson saw a solution: • Proposed exchanging land in the east, for lands in the west (Oklahoma Terr) • Was careful not to break his Christian ethics • Wanted to “Assimilate” Indians into white culture (Americanizing) Again some tribes allied with the British, Americans saw this as “treason” Demanded the punishment of these tribes • Confiscate their lands, remove them to the West • However, many Creeks, Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws remained loyal to the U.S Andrew Jackson winning the Presidency in 1828 was the final blow to removal Southern states started to pass oppression laws against tribal gov’t Jackson said he was “powerless” in the matter and hoped that Indians would start to accept their fate and move West.