 Gave
ownership of land in the New World
(America) to the Gov’t of the explorer
who made the discovery
 Made Indians the “rightful occupant” of
the land, but gave legal ownership to the
Gov’t
 TWO main effects: 1) Prevented U.S from
trying to conquer the Indians. 2) Indian
tribes were recognized as sovereign
nations
 Many
early treaties contained a Gov’t
agreement to provide services in
exchange of land
 Gov’t offered to protect Indian rights, and
Gov’t also acknowledged Indians to
occupy the land.
NATIVE AMERICANS




Viewed individual
ownership as impossible
Believed the land belonged
to the “Great Spirit” made
for everyone.
Land was necessary for
survival (fishing, hunting,
shelter)
If they sold land, they
believed is was only
temporary (renting)
WHITE SETTLERS




Viewed ownership as sign
of success, and ultimate
goal
Sign of industry and hard
work
Person’s importance was
based on property
ownership
Bought land on a
permanent basis
NATIVE AMERICANS




Tribes emphasized
“interdependence”
Hard physical labor was a
woman’s duty (farmwork)
Men were the hunters and
warriors
Believed farming huge
areas of land was an
“assault” on mother earth
WHITE SETTLERS



Emphasized
“independence” and selfsufficiency
Believed hard physical
labor was sign of a worthy
person, kept them close to
God
Father of family would lead
the family in work
 Indians
regarded whites a “poachers”
encroaching on tribal land, began to
attack frontier settlements.
 Colonists considered Indians inferior and
“evil”
 The American Revolution had Indians ally
with the British, which justified
Americans taking tribal lands. “Rights of
Conquest” since they had been defeated
along with the British
 Was
a white man’s problem, in their need
for confiscating prime farming lands, but
the Indians occupied these lands.
 President Thomas Jefferson saw a
solution:
• Proposed exchanging land in the east, for lands
in the west (Oklahoma Terr)
• Was careful not to break his Christian ethics
• Wanted to “Assimilate” Indians into white culture
(Americanizing)
 Again
some tribes allied with the British,
Americans saw this as “treason”
 Demanded the punishment of these
tribes
• Confiscate their lands, remove them to the West
• However, many Creeks, Cherokees, Choctaws,
Chickasaws remained loyal to the U.S
 Andrew
Jackson winning the Presidency
in 1828 was the final blow to removal
 Southern states started to pass
oppression laws against tribal gov’t
 Jackson said he was “powerless” in the
matter and hoped that Indians would
start to accept their fate and move West.