Division One
Greek Culture and Roman
Culture
Warm-up Questions ?
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How much do you know about Greece (ancient or
modern)?
Do you know when the first Modern Olympic Games
was held?
Homer was famous for two epics. Do you know what
they are?
There are many famous philosophers in ancient
Greece. Could you name some of them?
You must have ever heard of the following sentence,
―Give me a place to stand, and I will move the
world.‖ Do you know who said it?
Lecture Focus
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Greek Culture
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Roman Culture
Greek Culture
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A. The Historical Context
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(1). 1200 B.C. the war of Troy
a war was fought between Greece and Troy, ending
in the destruction of Troy.
(2). 5th century B.C. Greek culture reached a high
point of development.
--- successful repulse of the Persian invasion
--- the establishment of democracy
--- the flourishing of science, philosophy, literature,
art and historical writing in Athens
The century closed with civil war between Athens
and Sparta
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(3). In the second half of the 4th century
B.C., all Greece was brought under the
rule of Alexander, king of Macedon
 Greek culture was spread
 (4). In 146 B.C. the Romans conquered
Greece
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B. Social and Political Structure
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Politics --- Athens was a democracy
Democracy means ―exercise of power by the
whole people.‖
But ―the whole people‖ the Greeks meant only the
adult male citizens.
Economy --- the economy of Athens rested on an
immense amount of slave labor.
Slaves worked on farms, workshops, and mines.
There was harsh exploitation in Greek society.
Sports --- Greeks loved sports
A big festival on Olympus Mount once every 4 year
---- Olympic Games
Modern Olympic Games revived in 1896 顾拜旦(法)
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C. Homer ( probably lived around 700
B.C.) ---see P3
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Two epics: the Iliad 伊利亚特 and the
Odyssey 奥德赛
They are about great men and wars of a
remoter age, probably in the period
1200—1100 B.C.
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D. Lyric Poetry
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Sappho (about 612—580 B.C.)萨福woman
poet
She is noted for her love poems of passionate
intensity, some of which are addressed to
women.
She was considered the most important lyric
poet of ancient Greece. Many Greek and Latin
writers know nearly all her poems by heart.
But in the 10th century the Christian church
burned her works.
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Only fragments remain. Two samples
(1)
I could not hope
To touch the sky
With my two arms
(2)
In gold sandals
Dawn like a thief
Fell upon me
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Pindar (about 518—438 B.C.) 品达
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He is best known for his odes celebrating the
victories at the athletic games, such as the 14
Olympian odes. Pindar also had imitators,
such as the 17th-century English poet John
Dryden.
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E. Drama
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Origin: perform plays at religious festivals.
Develop: in the 5th century B.C. a powerful
drama developed
States: open-air theatres, audience sat on
stone benches and looked down at the stage
from three sides, actors wore masks.
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a.
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Tragedy
Aeschylus (525 — 456 B.C.) 埃斯库罗斯
Works: Prometheus Bound被缚的普罗米修斯,
Persians波斯人, and Agamemnon 阿伽门农
In these plays there are only two actors and a
chorus. Yet they manage to stir and move the
audience deeply by showing heroes and heroines in
complicated human situations, out of which there is
no escape but death. The play are written in verse.
Aeschylus is noted for his vivid character portrayal
and majestic poetry.
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Sophocles (496 --- 406 B.C.)索福克勒斯
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Works: Oedipus the King, Electra《厄勒克特拉》,
and Antigone《安提戈涅》.
Contribution: he added a third actor and decreased the
size of the chorus.
Sophocles has had a strong impact on European
literature. Some of his plots were taken over and
adopted by later writers. The Austrian psychiatrist
Sigmund Freud‘s term ―the Oedipus complex‖ was
also derived from Sophocles' play.
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Euripides (484 --- 406 B.C.) 欧里庇得斯
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Works: Andromache《安德洛玛刻》, Medea
《美狄亚》, and Trojan Women
b.
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Comedy
Aristophanes (about 450 --- 380 B.C.) 阿里
斯托芬
Works: Frogs, Clouds, Wasps 马蜂 and
Birds
These plays are loose in plot and satirical in
tone.
F. History
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Historical writing started early in Greece.
Herodotus (484 --- 430 B.C.) 希罗多德
―Father of History‖, he wrote about the wars
between Greeks and Persians.
His history, full of anecdotes and digressions and
lively dialogue, is wonderfully readable.
He kept alive many traditional stories, which were
not always accurate.
His object in writing was ―that the great and
wonderful deeds done by Greeks and Persians
should not lack renown.‖
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Thucydides (about 460 --- 404 B.C.) 修昔底
德
Younger than Herodotus, he is more accurate
as an historian.
He traced events to their causes and brought
out their effects.
He was never dull, but wrote with imagination
and power.
He was called ―the greatest historian that
ever lived.‖ by Macaulay (an eminent
historian)
G. Philosophy and Science
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The ancient Greeks were curious about many
things, including what made the universe.
They had the spirit of free enquiry and were
quite ready to drop established ideas, to
speculate, to use their imagination and to
form their own conclusions. They were also
not afraid to speak their minds.
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Pythagoras (about 580 --- 500 B.C.) 毕达哥拉斯
had the idea that all things were numbers.
Heracleitus (about 540 --- 480 B.C.) 赫拉克勒斯
believed fire to be the primary element of the
universe
He also said: You cannot step twice into the
same river. The sun is new everyday
Democritus (about 460 --- 370 B.C.) 德谟克利
特speculated about the atomic structure of
matter.
He was one of the earliest exponents of the
atomic theory.
Great Philosophers
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a. Socrates ( about 470 --- 399 B.C.) details in textbook P-23
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The dialectical method --- method of argument, by questions
and answers.
Greek philosopher who initiated a question-and-answer method
of teaching as a means of achieving self-knowledge. His
theories of virtue and justice have survived through the writings
of Plato, his most important pupil. Socrates was tried for
corrupting the minds of Athenian youth and subsequently put to
death (399).
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苏格拉底希腊哲学家,首创了问答工教学方法,作为获得认识自
我的一种方法。他关于道德和正义的理论,通过柏拉图(他最著
名的学生)的著作而得以流传下来。苏格拉底因被指控毒害雅典
年轻人的头脑而受到审判,并因此被处死(公元前339年)。
b. Plato ( about 428 ---348 B.C.) P26
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Men have knowledge because of the existence of
certain general ―ideas‖, like beauty, truth, goodness.
Only these ―ideas‖ are completely real, while the
physical world is only relatively real.
For this reason, Plato‘s philosophy is called
Idealism.(唯心主义)
Greek philosopher. A follower of Socrates, he founded
the Academy (386), where he taught and wrote for
much of the rest of his life. Plato presented his ideas in
the form of dramatic dialogues, as in The Republic.
柏拉图希腊哲学家,苏格拉底的信徒,他创办了学园
(公元前386年),在这里他教书写作度过他余生的大部
分时间柏拉图以戏剧对话的形式表述了他的思想,如在
理想国中。
c. Aristotle (384 --- 322 B.C.) P- 27
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Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of
Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic,
metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and
poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In
his philosophical system theory follows empirical
observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the
essential method of rational inquiry.
亚里士多德希腊哲学家。柏拉图的学生,亚历山大大帝的
教师,他的著述论及逻辑学,形而上学,伦理学,自然科
学,政治学和诗学,对西方思想产生了深远影响,在其哲
学体系里,理论服从实地观察和逻辑,以三段论为基础,
基本上是理性研究的理论方法。
d. Contending Schools of Thought
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诡辩学派 500 B.C.
代表人物:Protagoras
Representative works: On the God诸神论
His Doctrine: Man is the measure of all things.
Forerunner of Socratic dialectic
Emphasis on ability to argue for any case
regardless of its truth
Sophists
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Cynics:犬儒学派 300 B.C.
Under the leadership of Diogenes
Views:
simplicity
brotherhood
rejecting conventions---he had no patience with
the rich and the powerful.
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Sceptics 置疑学派
Under the leadership of Pyrrhon
Views:
Not all knowledge is attainable.
He doubted the truth of what others accepted as true.
Wise men should not judge, but should
aim at balanced imperburbability.
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Epicureans 伊壁鸠鲁学派/享乐派
Under the leadership of Epicurus—materialist,
the world consisted of atoms.
Views:
Pleasure is the highest good of life,
achieved through practiced virtue.
Different from hedonism(享乐主义)-through
sensual indulgence.
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Stoics 斯多葛派,禁欲主义学派
Under the leadership of Zeno--materialist
antithesis of Epicureans
Views:
virtue, not pleasure, is the highest good.
Duty
Hardship
e. Science
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Euclid 欧几里得(约公元前3世纪的古希腊数学
家) is even now well-known for his Element
《几何原本》, a textbook of geometry,
perhaps the most successful textbook ever
written, because it was in use in English
schools until the early years of the 20th
century.
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Archimedes 阿基米德 (287—212 B.C.)
did important work not only in geometry几
何学, but also in arithmetic算数学,
mechanics, and hydrostatics流体静力学.
―Give me a place to stand, and I will
move the world.‖
Greek science did not neglect application.
Mathematics, the purest of sciences, was
applied in at least five fields: acoustics声
学, optics光学, geography, statics静力学
and astronomy天文学.
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Greek scientists collected a wealth of
material and enquired into the proper method
of doing scientific work. As a result, they were
able to deduce theories and built up systems,
which had a tremendous influence on later
scientists.
H. Architecture
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a. Art
Greek art is a visual proof of Greek civilization.
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b. Architecture
Greek architecture can be grouped into 3 styles
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(1). the Doric Style ( masculine style ) 多利安式的
---- is sturdy (strong and firm), powerful, severe
looking,
showing a good sense of proportions and numbers.
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(2). the Ionic Style ( feminine style ) 爱奥尼亚
式的
---- is graceful and elegant (slightly ornamental
style ) ( While the Doric Style is monotonous
and unadorned, the Ionic style often shows a
wealth of ornament)
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(3). Corinthian Style 科林斯式的
---- is known for its ornamental luxury
The famous temples:
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Parthenon (447 -- 432 B.C.)帕台农神殿--- the
most perfect of all the Greek temples, 240 feet
long and 110 feet wide, a rectangular structure
with evenly spaced lines of columns around
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Acropolis (437 – 432 B.C.)
c. Sculpture
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The earliest Greek sculptures were those of Gods. Stiff,
lifeless wood carvings.
Towards the 7th century B.C., the size of the statues
became bigger and life-size. The figures stand very stiff
with arms close to their sides, hands clenched or flat
against the legs. Narrow waists but broad shoulders
and their hair was done in neat and rhythmical rows.
Towards the 5th century B.C., change from stiff and
mechanical to a period in which the beauty of the
internal structure of human bodies and mythological
figures are well-observed and brought out.
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Discus Thrower 掷铁饼者
A good sense of harmony and the balance of
opposites
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Venus de Milo 米洛的维纳斯
It has been looked upon as a symbol of
beauty, grace and health, a personification of
vitality and dignity.
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Laocoon group about 125 B.C. 拉奥孔人物
组雕
It is known for its successful depiction of the
expression of Laocoon‘s face – fear,
sympathy and terror.
d. Pottery
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The flourishing of the Greek pottery was a
result of domestic needs and needs for
foreign trade.
There were Black-figure paintings (700 – 600
B.C.) and Red-figure paintings ( --50 B.C.)
The Black-figure paintings are paintings on
pottery that have red background and black
figure.
The Red-figure paintings are paintings on
pottery that have black background and pink
figure.
I. Impact
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There has been in Europe and elsewhere an
enduring excitement about classical Greek
culture.
Rediscovery of Greek culture played a vital
part in the Renaissance in Italy and other
European countries.
Three qualities stand out:
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a. Spirit of Innovation
―They invented mathematics and science and
philosophy; they first wrote history as opposed to
mere annals; they speculated freely about the
nature of the world and the ends of life, without
being bound in the fetters of any inherited
orthodoxy.‖ (Bertand Russell: History of Western
Philosophy)
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b. Supreme Achievement
The Greeks achieved supreme achievements
in nearly all fields of human endeavor;
philosophy, science, epic poetry, tragedy,
comedy, lyric poetry, historical writing,
architecture, sculpture, etc.
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c. Lasting Effect
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Philosophy
Literature: Byron‘s Isles of Greece, Shelley‘s
Hellas and Prometheus Unbound and Keats‘s
Ode on a Grecian Urn.
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Roman Culture
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146 B.C. Roman conquered Greece
Latin ----western half of the Roman Empire
Greeks---- Eastern
27 B.C. Octavius emperor of Augustus
the following 2 centuries Roman Empire reached its greatest
extent
the Mediterranean,
north—Scotland,
east—Amenia & Mesopotamia
3rd century the Empire began to decline
4th century the emperor Constantine Capital Rome---Byzantium
renamed it Constantinople (modern Istanbul)
395 divided into east(the Byzantine Empire) and west
476 the end of West Roman Empire
1453 the end of East Roman Empire
Romans and Greeks
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The common things: .The Roman had a lot in
common with the Greek
(In politics). Both peoples had traditions rooted in
the idea of the citizen assembly, hostile to
monarchy and to servility.
(In religions). Their religions were alike enough for
most of their deities to be readily identified---Greek
Zeus with Roman Jupiter, Greek Aphrodite with
Roman Venus, and so on---and their myths to be
fused.
(In languages). Their languages worked in similar
ways, and were ultimately related, both being
members of the Indo-European language family.
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The differences:
.There was one big difference
.The Romans built up a vast empire; the
Greeks didn‘t. Except for the brief moment of
Alexander‘s conquests, which soon
disintegrated.
Roman Law
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In its earliest stage: patricians贵族
customary legal procedure
In the mid-3rd century B.C. :plebeians平民
the rules put into writing
Further development: the law was codified
Eventually became the core of modern civil
and commercial law in many western
countries.
Latin Literature
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a. Prose
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Two men active on the political scene wrote
memorable prose
. Marcus Tullius Cicero (106—43B.C.) 西塞罗
He played an important role in the Roman senate
Noted for his oratory演说术 and fine writing style
His legal and political speeches are models of Latin
diction.
Ciceronian—eloquent, oratorical manner of writing
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. Julius Caesar (102/100?–44B.C.) 凯撒
a general, dictator, assassinated.
He recorded what he did and saw in the
various military campaigns
These writings, collected in his
Commentaries, are models of succinct Latin.
He use language with economy and ferocity
―I came, I saw, I conquered.‖
b. Poetry
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. Lucretius (93—50 B.C.) 卢克莱修
He wrote the philosophical poem On the
Nature of Things 物性论
. Virgil (70—19 B.C.) 维吉尔
The greatest of Latin poets, wrote the great
epic, the Aeneid 埃涅阿斯纪
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Architecture, Painting and Sculpture
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i. Architecture
The Romans were great engineers. They covered
their world from one end to the other with roads,
bridges, aqueducts, theatres and arenas
. The Pantheon(万神庙) ..\欧洲文化图片资料
\Pantheon, Rome - Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia.htm
The greatest and the best preserved Roman temple,
which was built in 27 B.C. and reconstructed in the
2nd century A.D
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. Pont du Gard (加德桥输水道) ..\欧洲文化图片资
料\Pont du Gard - Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia.htm
It is an exceptionally well-preserved aqueduct that
spans a wide valley in south France
the Colosseum(古罗马圆形大斗兽场) ..\欧洲文化图
片资料\Colosseum - Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia.htm
It is an enormous amphitheatre built in the centre of
Rome in imperial times. A masterpiece of engineering,
it held more than 5000 spectators. Its interior is twothird of a mile round.
The Colosseum was used for games, contests and
shows.
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ii. Painting
Roman painting was strongly influenced by
the art of Greece. Unfortunately much of the
painting no longer exists. There are, however,
some wall-paintings from Pompeii and other
towns near Naples. These wall-paintings
include still life, landscape paintings and
figure paintings.
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iii. Sculpture
.she—wolf ..\欧洲文化图片资料\Capitoline Wolf Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.htm
A statue which illustrates the legend of the creation
of Rome. Today at the site of the city‘s founding,
there stands a statue of the she-wolf
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Constantine the Great (4th Century B.C.)
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Spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem (81 A.D)
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Chapter_One_Greek_Culture_and_Roman_Culture