World History: Connection to Today
Chapter 6
Ancient Rome and the
Rise of Christianity
(509 B.C.–A.D. 476)
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Geography and Rome
Rome is located in the center of the Italian
peninsula.This location helped the Romans
expand in Italy and beyond.
The _________Mountains run down the
center of Italy but are not too rugged.
Fertile plains supported a growing population.
Ancestors of the Romans settled along the
Tiber River. These villages eventually grew into
The Roman Republic
In 509 B.C., the Romans drove out the Etruscans and set up a new
government, which they called a ________In a republic, some
officials are chosen by the people.
In the early republic, the senate dominated the government.
Its members were __________, or members of the
landholding class.
Little by little, the __________, or common people, gained some
political power. These included the right to elect their own officials,
called __________ .The tribunes could __________, or block, laws
that they felt harmed plebeians.
More than 2,000 years later, the framers of the United States
Constitution would adapt Roman ideas of government, such
as the senate, the veto, and checks on political power.
Roman Society
The family was the basic unit of
Roman society.
Women gained greater freedom
and influence over the centuries.
Male was head of household and
had absolute authority.
Some women ran businesses.
Most worked at home, raising
Both girls and boys learned to
read and write.
Gods and goddesses resembled
those of Greeks and Etruscans.
Education was highly valued.
Religious festivals inspired sense of
Romans built many temples for
Inside a Roman Home
The Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.E.)
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What was Carthage?
Powerful city located near present-day Tunis, Tunisia, along the
Mediterranean coast of Africa
Carthage had a large commercial empire
Phoenician colony founded in the 8th century BCE
Punic is Latin for Phoenician
Great harbor at Carthage
Phoenician tradition of sailing and trading
Controlled trade in the western Mediterranean
Carthaginian trading empire spread to islands of Corsica, Sardinia,
and western Sicily, along with southern __________ peninsula
(modern-day Spain)
Major rival of Rome
Where did Carthaginian power lie?
Very large
Phoenician sailing tradition
Mercenaries (hired soldiers)
__________ – ruled by the wealthy elites (those made rich
through trade)
How many Punic wars were there?
• 264-241 BCE
• Fought over Sicily
• Rome won
• 218-201 BCE
• Rome challenged Carthaginian expansion in __________(Spain)
• Rome won
• 149-146 BCE
• Rome feared Carthage was again becoming a threat
• Rome attacked Carthage and obliterated the threat for good
First Punic War (264-241 BCE)
Carthage and Rome fought for 23 years over control of Sicily
Rome’s solution – build up its navy
Roman strength – _______
Carthaginian strength – _________
Built four fleets, each destroyed in turn, before mastering naval
Rome’s new weapon – grappling hook
Lashed ships together
Forced ship crews to fight one another on deck
Hand-to-hand fighting was a Roman strength
Rome won – Sicily became a province of Rome
In the meantime…
• Rome came to
control Corsica
and Sardinia
• Rome conquered
the Gauls of the
Po River Valley
• Carthage
recovered from
its defeat by
• Carthage started
expanding in
Iberia (Spain)
Second Punic War (218-201 BCE)
Carthage: General Hannibal
Rome: General Scipio
• Led 60,000 men and dozens of
elephants through Spain, along
the Mediterranean coast, through
Gaul, and across the Alps to Italy
• Fought in Italy for 15 years,
winning many battles
• Battle of Cannae (216 BCE)
• Romans lost over 50,000
• But Hannibal could not
capture the city of Rome
• Led an army against Carthaginian
Iberia (Spain)
• Then led an army against
Carthage itself
• Then returned to Italy to defend
the city of Rome
• Battle of Zama (202 BCE)
• Hannibal’s first and only defeat
• Hannibal escaped and
returned to Carthage
• Carthage lost its fleet, Iberia
(Spain), and the larger part of its
territory in northern Africa
•207 BCE – Battle of the
•Pivotal battle of the Second
Punic War
•Hannibal’s brother,
Hasdrubal, was bringing
supplies and equipment to his
brother for the siege against
•Consul Marcus Livius was
reinforced when Consul Gaius
Claudius Nero brought troops
via a forced march
•Carthaginians were
outnumbered and Hasdrubal
was defeated
•Consul Gaius Claudius Nero
severed the head of Hasdrubal
and had it thrown into
Hannibal’s camp as a threat
In the meantime…
• Carthage rebuilt its
trading networks and
commercial power
• Rome felt threatened
by competition from
• Senator Cato ended
all of his speeches
with the warning:
“Carthago delenda
est!” (“Carthage
must be destroyed!”)
Third Punic War (149-146 BCE)
Rome made
ridiculous demands
of Carthage
Carthage refused
Romans laid siege to
• 300 noble children to be given to Rome as hostages
• Carthage to be destroyed and rebuilt away from the coast
• Carthage had no mercenaries
• Forced to defend their own city
• Roman siege was successful
• Romans burnt Carthage to the ground – became Roman province
• Men killed; women and children sold into slavery
Results of the Punic Wars:
During and After
Rome and Carthage
had been what you
might call the
“superpowers” of the
Mediterranean at the
Roman control of
Rome went on to
conquer the remnants
of Alexander the
Great’s empire in
• Hannibal had made an
alliance with the Macedonian
• Rome attacked and defeated
• Fighting among the Greek
Macedonia in 197 BCE
• Rome’s defeat of Carthage
• Rome took over, ending
left Rome as the only
Greek independence (146
remaining “superpower”
• It was much easier for Rome
• Kingdom of Pergamum
to conquer the rest of the
Mediterranean once
• In modern-day Turkey
Carthage was out of the way
• Under Roman rule in 133
Provincial Governments
Each conquered area was a province of Rome
Each province was governed by a Roman proconsul
Typically a member of the patrician (noble) class
More often than not these were corrupt
Publicans were tax collectors
Became a publican by auctioning for the job
Squeezed as much money out of conquered peoples as they could
Rome Grows Wealthy
Money (from taxes and war booty) and cheap goods
flooded Rome
Africa and Sicily – wheat
Spain – silver and tin
East – gems and luxury
Upper classes grew
wealthier, and new class
of wealthy merchants
and traders emerged
Government had more money than ever before
Whoever controlled the government could use this
money for its own needs (e.g., government
This caused greater tension in the struggle for
control of the government
Old Roman Values Diminish
Roman Army
• Originally, it was
staffed by
• Professional army
lacked the former
volunteer fighting
Morals and Values
• Corruption
replaced dedication
to public service
• Pursuit of luxury,
pleasure, and soft
living replaced hard
work, patriotism,
and simplicity
What did expansion mean for Rome?
• Wealth
• From trade
• From taxes
• Power
• Control of most of the
• Difficult to manage an empire
• Multicultural empire
required a multifaceted
• Wealth created new classes
in Rome
• Slaves gained by conquests
displaced free farmers and
• These problems ultimately
ended the “Republic” and
led to the “Empire”
Rich Get Richer, Poor Get Poorer
Money from government
contracts (building bridges,
roads, and ships; supplying
the armies)
High-interest loans
Bribes and graft in the
_________, the large
farms of the wealthy,
became operated by slaves
Poor farmers and workers
could not compete with
the products of slave labor
Wealthy class bought up
the lands of impoverished
These unemployed masses
had one thing left—their
right to vote
These unemployed
masses—the “Roman
mob”—threw their
support to those
politicians who offered
“bread and circuses”
Impoverished farmers and
others flooded the city of
Julius Caesar
The Man the Myth The Legend
The City of Caesar 80B.C.-44B.C.
becomes a millionaire setting up the only fire
Crassus was still a popular person he treated even the
poorest of people like his best friend
Crassus not only wanted to be the richest but also the
most powerful man in Rome
He dreamed of himself in glistening armor crushing a
foreign king and returning to adoring citizens who would
make him ruler of Rome for life
Spartacus leads a revolt
Spartacus leads a revolt of
90,000 slaves
Spartacus’ men rip through the
Roman country side winning
battle after battle then turn on
The city hadn't faced such a
danger since Hannibal
Now was Crassus’ chance to be
a hero
Spartacus cont.
Crassus rides out with an army and leads them to a
great victory over Spartacus but when he returned
home it was a general named _________ who took
all the credit for the victory
Soon after the battle they are both elected to serve as
counsels of Rome.
They both worked hard strengthening Rome
The Young Julius Caesar
As a young officer he becomes
elected to represent the people’s
party in Rome
He was a brilliant soldier and an
even better self promoter
He had many family connections
He was very ambitious and saw
himself as an Alexander.
He became the people’s friend
and was a great speech maker
The First Triumvirate
Origins of the First _________
68 BC Caesar wins a post with the army in Spain
He staged great processions, gave public feasts, and
put on great gladiatorial games but went severely
into debt
He got Crassus to pay off all of his debts which was
a good investment because he soon won offices and
great riches with which to pay Crassus back
The Great Power Play
Pompey the Great returns to Rome after 2 years of
conquering to 2 days of triumph as well as 2 days of snubs by
the Senate
Julius Caesar sees an opportunity for domination. He proposes
an alliance be formed with each person getting what they
wanted. Caesar wanted to become consul of Rome, Crassus
wanted laws to be passed that would help his business friends,
and Pompey wanted his conquered lands to be secured and his
men to be taken care of.
The Deal is Sealed
They each had something valuable to
bring to the partnership. Caesar’s
popularity and family ties, Crassus had
loads of money, and Pompey was the
conquering hero.
Pompey and Crassus agreed to end their
rivalry and the three joined forces.
Caesar gave his daughter as a bride to
Pompey as the deal breaker.
The new triumvirate would now rule
Rome secretly and behind the scenes
and make the Senate virtually irrelevant.
Caesar in Gaul
Just as Caesar wanted he was elected
All of Pompey’s lands and treaties were
made secure
Caesar is given command of Gaul wins
battle after battle. Takes over half of
Britain as well. Crassus and Pompey
grow jealous of him.
Caesar called a meeting and they
divided up all the land between them.
But they still were jealous of one and
There can be only ONE
Each now had their own army. Pompey stayed in Rome
however while Caesar went back to Gaul and Crassus
went East with his troops to be the conquering hero in his
shiny golden armor.
The next 3 years the partnership crumbled Crassus was
defeated in Syria and then killed by _________.
With only 2 left both Pompey and Caesar knew they would
have to fight to determine a sole ruler
Pompey and the mobs
Mobs ran through the street of Rome and the Senate
offered to make him sole consul if he got rid of them.
He did just that and made a permanent enemy of
Caesars 5 years in Gaul were now up and he was
suppose to return home.
Caesar was ordered to disband his troops and give up
his command.
He marched his troops up to the Rubicon and said he
would disband his men only if Pompey did as well.
Crossing the ______________
If he crosses with his men he
will no longer be a great hero
but an invader if he doesn’t his
career is over and perhaps
even his life.
He crosses and Pompey and
the senators who supported
him flee
Caesar has the remaining
senators make him the new
consul of Rome. He takes his
army to Spain and defeats
Pompey’s allies there.
Cleopatra the Queen of the Nile
Caesar chases Pompey to
Egypt when he finds Cleopatra
and is stuck by her beauty
He gets pulled into a family
quarrel. She convinces him to
help her get her throne back.
He marched into the palace
and captured ________ and
turned the thrown back over
to Cleopatra.
This caused the entire army of
Egypt to attack him
Caesar in Egypt
Caesar got more than he bargained for
Just as he was about to be annihilated help and reinforcements
from Asia Minor arrived
He stays in Egypt much too long. Barbarians who had defeated
Crassus were invading Roman provinces. Pompey’s sons had
taken Africa for the Senate but each time he thinks of leaving
he finds a reason to stay with the Egyptian Queen
Finally spring came and he left Rome to do battle with his
enemies. The victories would come but at a much higher price.
Veni Vedi Vici
He won well over 100 battles in his
lifetime. He had victories in Gaul
Africa, Spain Egypt, Britain, and Asia
Caesar had great plans for Rome
He pardoned all the men who had
plotted against him
He was elected ________ for life
He was offered a crown but refused it
on several occasions.
He won the hearts and minds of the
people including many of the senators
Beware the Ides of March
Senators led by Cassius plot
to assassinate Caesar
They get his best friend
________ on their side
March 15, 44 BC the Senate
convenes Julius Caesar
attends the meeting and is
attacked and stabbed by the
senators including Brutus.
Et tu Brutus
Caesar’s legacy
He made the army and government of Rome far more efficient
The size of the Senate was increased to better represent the
Citizenship was extended to many more people making it more
He improved the tax system by making it more fair and
introduced a new calendar that would be used for the next 1500
Created many jobs for the poor and took 50% of the people
who receiving welfare off of government aid
The Second Triumvirate
43 B.C.E. -12
Marc Antony
Son of a military commander
General for Caesar, cavalry commander
Controlled Caesars funds
• Statesman elected consul
with support of Pompey
43 B.C.E.
Octavian and Antony agreed to a sharing of power.
They, along with Lepidus who was the ________
________ (high priest) are designated by the
Senate as a Triumvirate with dictatorial powers for
five years.
Octavian, Antony and Lepidus agreed to eliminate
Senators and members of the Roman aristocracy
whom any one of the three considered a threat to
public order. Altogether 300 senators and two
thousand lesser level aristocrats are executed.
42 B.C.E.
The Senate deemed Julius Caesar as having been a
god. This enhanced Octavian's status still further.
Antony and Octavian undertook a military expedition to
the east to defeat Brutus and Cassius.
Brutus and Cassius kill themselves.
The Triumvirate then divides up the Empire.
Anthony gets the east and Gaul. Lepidus gets Africa and
Octavian gets the west except for Italy which was to be
under common control of the three.
The alliance of Octavian and Antony was renewed and
further confirmed by Antony marrying the sister of
Octavian, ________
32 B.C.E.
Antony divorces Octavia,
Octavian's sister.
Octavian reveals that
Anthony's will calls for the
granting of Roman territory
in the east to Cleopatra.
Furthermore it reveals
plans for transferring the
capital of the empire from
Rome to Alexandria.
The sympathy and
allegiance of the Roman
public are with Octavian
against Antony.
31 B.C.E.
Antony decides to bring his
forces to the western side of
Greece. Cleopatra
accompanies him.
Octavian sends a military
expedition to Greece.
Octavian’s fleet blocks in
Antony and Cleopatra's fleet.
Cleopatra, for fear of being
captured, pulls her ships out
of the battle and heads back
to Egypt thus ensuring the
defeat of Anthony's forces.
Anthony and some of his
ships escape from the battle
and follow Cleopatra.
30 B.C.E.
Octavian invades Egypt; Anthony commits suicide
and Cleopatra follows.
Cleopatra's son by Julius Caesar is sent into hiding
on the Red Sea coast of Egypt but Octavian tracks
him down and kills him.
Octavian annexed Egypt into the Roman Empire and
put it under his direct control.
28 B.C.E.
Octavian was appointed
the ________ of the
Although Octavian was all
powerful he was
determined to clothe his
rule under the republican
Octavian was awarded
the name " ________ (the honored one) and
thereafter he was referred
to as Caesar Augustus.
12 B.C.E.
12 BCE: Augustus becomes Pontificus Maximus
after Lepidus dies
Republic- a state in which the supreme power rests
in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is
exercised by representatives chosen directly or
indirectly by them.
Emperor supreme ruler of an empire (group of
Expansion in Italy
By about 270 B.C., Rome controlled most of the Italian
Why was Rome’s expansion in Italy successful?
Skilled diplomacy
Loyal, well-trained army
Treated defeated enemies fairly
Gave rights to conquered people
Winning an Empire
After gaining control of the Italian peninsula, Rome began
to build an empire around the Mediterranean Sea.
The Romans followed a policy of ________, establishing
control over foreign lands and peoples.
Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor
became Roman ________ or lands under Roman rule.
The Roman Empire at Its Height
By 133 B.C., Roman power extended from Spain to Egypt.
Decline of the Republic
Conquered people forced to work as slaves
Huge quantities of grain
Small farmers no longer needed to produce food
New wealth increases corruption
Farmers flock to Rome and other cities looking for jobs
Greed and self-interest replace virtues of simplicity,
hard work, and devotion to duty
Civil wars
From Republic to Empire
Civil wars
Julius Caesar forces the Roman senate to make him dictator.
Caesar institutes reforms to try to solve Rome’s many problems.
Caesar is killed by enemies who feared that he planned to make
himself king of Rome.
More civil wars break out.
Octavian defeats Mark Antony in a struggle for power.
The Roman senate gives Octavian the title of Augustus, or Exhalted
One, and declares him first citizen.
The 500-year republic comes to an end. The age of the Roman
empire begins.
Roman Empire and Roman Peace
Augustus laid the foundation for a stable government that
would function well for 200 years. This period was called the
Pax Romana.
Augustus’ reforms
Created efficient civil service to enforce the laws.
Opened up high-level jobs to men of talent, regardless of
Allowed cities and provinces to govern themselves.
Ordered a census, or population count, in order to make
the tax system more fair.
Set up a postal service and issued new coins.
Employed the jobless.
The Roman Achievement
How was Greco-Roman civilization formed?
What were some Roman contributions to
literature, the arts, and technology?
What principles of law did Romans develop?
How was Greco-Roman civilization formed?
The Romans borrowed heavily from Greek culture after they
conquered Greece.
At the same time, Roman generals carried achievements of Roman
civilization to conquered lands.
The blending of Roman, ________ and Greek traditions produced
Greco-Roman civilization.
Trade and travel during the _______ ________ helped spread this
new civilization.
Roman Advances in Literature, History, and
Historians wrote about the rise and
fall of Roman power.
Writers imitated Greek styles in
prose and poetry.
Roman philosophers borrowed
heavily from the Greeks.
Virgil praised Rome’s heroic
past in the Aeneid.
Stoics emphasized acceptance of
one’s fate and concern for the wellbeing of others.
Poets used verse to ________ ,
or make fun of, Roman society.
Roman Advances in Art and Science
Built roads, bridges, and harbors
throughout empire
Romans left scientific research to
the Greeks.
Ptolemy proposed that Earth was
the center of the universe.
Galen used experiments to prove
a conclusion.
Built many ________
Sculptors stressed realism.
Emphasized grandeur
Artists depicted life scenes in
frescoes and ________ .
Improved column and arch
Developed rounded dome
Roman Law
During the Roman empire, these principles of law
fostered unity and stability:
An accused person was presumed to be innocent until proven
The accused was permitted to face the accuser and offer a
Guilt had to be established through evidence.
Judges were expected to interpret the laws and make fair
Centuries later, these principles would become the basis for legal
systems in Europe and the Americas.
The Rise of Christianity
What was Rome’s policy toward different
religions in the early empire?
What were the major teachings of Jesus, and
how were they spread?
How did the early Christian Church develop?
The Teachings of Jesus
Some of Jesus’ teachings were rooted in Judaism:
Belief in one God
Ten Commandments
Mercy and sympathy for the poor and helpless
Obedience to the laws of Moses
Jesus also preached new beliefs:
Called himself the Son of God
Proclaimed that he brought salvation and eternal
life to anyone who would believe in him
Jesus also emphasized God’s love and taught the
need for justice, morality, and service to others.
Spread of Christianity
At first, the apostles and disciples
preached only in Judea.
Disciples began to preach in
Jewish communities
throughout the Roman world.
Jews who accepted the
beliefs of Jesus became the
first Christians.
Paul spread Christianity
beyond the Jewish
communities, to non-Jews.
Religious Diversity in the Early Empire
As long as people honored Roman
gods and acknowledged the divine
spirit of the emperor, they were
allowed to worship other gods as
they pleased.
After the Romans conquered Judea,
they excused the monotheistic Jews
from worshiping the Roman gods.
Rome mistrusted Christians
because they refused to make
sacrifices to the emperor or honor
the Roman gods.
Roman officials persecuted the
Christians. Many Christians became
________ , people who suffer or
die for their beliefs.
The Early Christian Church
Early Christian communities shared a
common faith and a common way of
A bishop was responsible for all Christians
in a particular area called a ________
Gradually, some bishops became
________ with authority over other
bishops in their area.
The Christian Church thus developed a
The Empire in Crisis
With the end of the Pax Romana, political and economic
turmoil rocked the Roman empire.
Political Problems
Emperors were repeatedly
overthrown or assassinated.
In one 50-year period, 26
emperors ruled, and only one
died of natural causes.
Economic & Social Problems
High taxes to support the army
burdened business people and
Poor farmers were forced to
work and live on wealthy estates.
Over-cultivated farmland lost its
Two Reformers
Divided the empire into two parts to
make it easier to govern
Continued Diocletian’s reforms
Tried to increase the prestige of the
Granted toleration to Christians,
which led to the rapid growth of
Fixed prices to slow ________ , or
the rapid rise of prices
Established laws to ensure steady
production of food and goods
Built a new capital at
Constantinople, making the eastern
part of the empire the center of
Foreign Invasions
A weakened Rome
could not withstand
the forces of
Germanic invasions.
The Huns dislodged
other Germanic
peoples and, little
by little, conquered
the Roman empire.
The Decline and Fall of Rome

World History Connections to Today