Ancient Rome The Colosseum The Flavian Amphitheatre, better known as the Colosseum, was one of the best-known arenas of ancient times. Construction began in A.D. 72 (Anno Domini / Year of the Lord) under the Emperor Vespasian. Arches and columns were prominent features. A wooden floor covered with sand was found at the Colosseum’s center. Beneath this wooden center, a maze of passageways with cells holding slaves, early Christians, and wild animals could be found. When completed in A.D. 80, the emperor celebrated by holding 100 days of games and competitions. The oval-shaped arena could seat more than 50,000 spectators who watched many bloody competions and mock naval battles. On the Banks of the Tiber How did geography and myth each influence the early development of the Roman Republic? I. The Location of Rome Located near the center of the Italian peninsula. The Italian peninsula is boot-shaped and extends from southern Europe into the Mediterranean Sea. Mountain range known as the Alps separates the peninsula from the rest of Europe. The Apennines is a long mountain range that runs down the center of the peninsula. Think of it as Italy’s spine. Bodies of water that surround it: Adriatic, Mediterranean, and the Tyrrhenian Seas. A. Rome’s Geographic Setting 1. Has a Mediterranean climate with mild winters and warm, dry summers. What is a Mediterranean climate? San Francisco’s climate has been described as this. 2. Unlike mountainous Greece, the Italian peninsula has large plains. This gave more arable land, or land suited for farming. 3. Italy has important rivers, namely the Tiber, Arno and Po. B. The Tiber River 1. 2nd largest river in Italy and flows into the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the West. It is in a region known as Latium. In ancient times Latium was lush and green; today it is rather arid, or dry. FOR YOUR INFORMATION: Salt from the Tiber River The Tiber River, in addition to being a trade and transportation route, provided the ancient Romans with one of their earliest items to trade: salt. The salt was collected and then transported to other parts of the Italian peninsula by the Via Salaria (“Salt Road”). Across the peninsula, salt was used to preserve and season foods and as an additive to food for herds of animals. Salt was of such value that ancient Romans made regular offerings of salt to the gods. Q: Based on this tidbit of info, can you infer where our word salary comes from and why? II. The Origins of Rome Around 1000 B.C. (B.C. refers to “Before Christ”) a people called the Latins settled in Latium. They founded a village on Palatine Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome. There were other villages; eventually they became the city of Rome. A. Founding Myths 1. The Aeneid is an epic poem written by Virgil. It describes the journey of a Trojan warrior named Aeneas. Biography Quest: Virgil Virgil was a Roman poet who lived from 70 B.C. to 19 B.C. in ancient Rome. Why was he important? His epic poem, The Aeneid, celebrates the values and achievements of ancient Rome. The poem has also proven influential to many later poets. 2. Romulus and Remus (descendants of Aeneas) These twins were said to be of divine, meaning god or godlike. They had a human mother and their father was Mars, the Roman god of war. A jealous uncle put the babies in a basket and thrown into the Tiber. The boys were saved by a she-wolf and then rescued by a shepherd. This bronze statue is prominently located in the Capitoline Museum in Rome. When they were grown up, they set out to found a new city. However, they could not agree on the best location for their city. In the heat of the dispute, Romulus killed Remus. Romulus then founded the city, named it after himself and became the first king. Rome’s founding myths have little basis in fact. BUT they do signify something about the Roman people. From early times they believed Rome was destined for greatness. They wanted to link its history with gods and legendary heroes. They did so by creating myths that would glorify Rome’s beginnings as well as its founders. B. Growth of the City 1. Rome’s location played a key role in its growth. Cicero, a Roman author wrote that “the location Romulus Chose…was unbelievably favorable. It seems to me that even then, Romulus foresaw that this city would be the seat and home of a great empire.” -Cicero, On the Commonwealth 2. Rome’s seven hills provided Romans with a natural defense against attack. They could farm in the fields below, then make a retreat to their hilltop homes for safety. 3. The Tiber River provided access to a nearby port. 4. It was located on key trading routes. Salt and iron were some of the items the Romans used for trade. REVIEW THE MAIN IDEAS OF THIS LESSON: 1. Rome developed from a small settlement along the Tiber River. 2. Rome’s location allowed it to grow into a larger city with natural defenses and access to major trade routes. Lesson 2: Rise of the Roman Republic Main Idea: The Roman Republic was established after the people of Rome overthrew the Etruscan kings. I. From Monarchy to Oligarchy A. The Etruscan Kings 1. Tarquin the Elder gains control of Rome and becomes its king. 2. Etruscan kings ruled with the consent of Rome’s wealthy aristocrats. They formed a body of government called the Senate. Advised king. 3. There was also an assembly made up of citizens who could bear arms. They had no real power. B. Etruscan Improvements 1. Adapted the Greek alphabet; became basis for the Latin alphabet, still in use today. 2. Brought a strong military to Rome; their military organization, the phalanx, would later aid Roman expansion. 3. Improved the city by a. Creating a sewer system b. Streets laid in a grid, or rectangular, pattern c. Streets paved with cobblestones d. Introduced the arch in construction 4. Religion a. Augury used to predict the future. Priests, known as augurs, would read the will of the gods. How? They would observe the flight patterns of birds; they would examine animal intestines. The Etruscan Alphabet… And how it developed. Focus Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What factors influenced the rise and development of the Roman Republic? How did geography and myths influence the early influence and early development of the Roman Republic? What steps did Rome take in its progress from a monarchy to a republic? What were the roles of each of the three parts of the government of the republic? What traditions, values, and beliefs influenced Roman society? The Sands of Time… Recalling what we learned… MYTHOLOGY: What was the purpose of mythology in ancient Greek Civilization? So, how do you think the ancient Romans used mythology? POLITICAL SYSTEM / GOVERNMENT How is the government of the United States organized? There are three branches of government: legislative, executive and judicial. The Constitution explains the basic laws of the U.S. VOCABULARY you should know… 1. legislative: makes the laws 2. executive: enforces the law 3. judicial: interprets the law So, in our nation- Congress is the legislative branch; the President and his Cabinet make up the executive branch; the Supreme Court and its judges make up the judicial branch. Let’s recall the ancient Egyptians. Remember their social order? Pharaoh Nobles, priests, officials Scribes Merchants, artisans Slaves Q: What purpose did social order serve in ancient Egypt? Think of this as we discuss the Romans. The Roman Republic What factors influenced the rise and development of the Roman Republic? The Forum Similar to the Greek agora, the Forum served as both market place and meeting place in ancient Rome. Government buildings, temples, monuments, and streets lined with shops gave the Forum a square or rectangular shape. And many of its pieces were used in new construction across the city. In fact, the Forum became so desolate that at one point it was known as the Campo Vaccino, or “Cow Field.” However, excavations in the 19th and 20th centuries led to the restoration of many of the Forum’s temples and arches. The ruins of this magnificent complex can be seen in Rome today. C. Formation of the Republic 1. Tarquin the Proud (3rd Etruscan king whom the Romans grew tired of. He was a harsh ruler and the Romans revolted.) The Ballad of Tarquin the Proud By Arturius Perezius Dedicated to the Septimus Gradius Come and listen to the story of Tarquin the Proud Whose harsh rule of Rome Made the people become loud. He did things without Consulting the Senate He executed well known upper classers Probably with knuckles of brass, er… His son wasn’t better A pain in the tuchus you might say He assaulted a lady one lovely summer day The woman didn’t like it So her life she did take. Her family wasn’t happy In fact they were upset They vowed to take revenge. To bad there weren’t tabloids Or those cheezy newpapers ‘cause a family member Told of all of Tarquin’s crimes In fact the people supported the family and their Leadership And poor, poor Tarquin… Well, he was overthrown So Tarquin the Proud His reign did come to an end And the Romans cheered and applauded The new government to come They established a R-E-P-U-B-L-I-C Republic, republic Yeahhhhh! Republic! 2. Republic: a government in which citizens have the right to vote and elect officials. 3. Consuls stood as the highest officials in the Roman government. They did the jobs once done by the king. Checkpoint How did the government of Rome move from a monarchy to a republic? Logo of the Republic The letters SPQR stand for the Latin phrase Senatus Populusque Romanus which means “the Senate and People of Rome.” The logo represented the Republic on items such as buildings and coins. Q: What symbol is used to represent countries today? Senatus Populusque Romanus II. The Struggle of the Orders Before the Republic, Rome was divided into two groups called orders. One order was the patricians. They represented the upper class of Roman society. The other order was the plebeians, or the common people of Rome. A. Patricians and Plebeians Rome’s government and organization highly favored the patricians. The plebeians, in contrast, had little power or influence. Marriage between the orders was prohibited. Plebeians had little influence on Rome’s economy. Most worked as peasant farmers and were poor. If a plebeian owed money and could not pay, that poor plebeian could be sold into slavery. This practice of enslaving people who cannot pay their debts is known as debt bondage. Patricians Army / Slave Plebeians B. The Plebeians Rebel They figured if the patricians could govern Rome, they wouldn’t need plebeian soldiers. They really wanted a voice- representation- in the government. They wanted an assembly with real power. In 471 B.C. the Tribal Assembly was formed and became part of the Roman government. tribune: top officials of the plebeian assembly Tribunes represented the plebeian interests in government affairs. They had the power to block laws that they deemed unfair to the people. tribune: top officials of the plebeian assembly C. The Twelve Tablets The first written law code of the Republic. Some of the laws concerned family, property, crime, and punishment. • • • • A father shall have absolute power over his children. Things sold and delivered shall not become the property of the buyer until he has paid the seller. A person committing burglary in the night may be lawfully killed. A thief in the daytime may not be killed unless he carried a weapon. No one shall be put to death except after the trial. Roman Fasces: A fasces was carried by Roman officials as a symbol of their authority and power to punish. Origin and symbolism The traditional Roman fasces consisted of a bundle of white birch rods, tied together with a red leather ribbon into a cylinder, and often including a bronze axe (or sometimes two) amongst the rods, with the blade(s) on the side, projecting from the bundle. It was used as a symbol of the Roman Republic in many circumstances, including being carried in processions, much the way a flag might be carried today.